Agro-ecological zone and farm diversity are factors associated with haemoglobin and anaemia among rural school-aged children and adolescents in Ghana

Fusta Azupogo*, Elisabetta Aurino, Aulo Gelli, Kwabena M. Bosompem, Irene Ayi, Saskia J.M. Osendarp, Inge D. Brouwer, Gloria Folson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Understanding contextual risk factors for haemoglobin (Hb) status and anaemia of rural school-aged children (SAC) and adolescents is critical in developing appropriate interventions to prevent anaemia. We analysed secondary data from the baseline of an impact evaluation of the Ghana School Feeding Programme to determine the severity of anaemia and contextual factors associated with anaemia and Hb status among rural SAC (6–9 years; n = 323) and adolescents (10–17 years; n = 319) in Ghana. We used regression models with variable selection based on backward elimination in our analyses. The mean Hb was 113.8 ± 13.1 g/L, and the overall prevalence of anaemia was 52.3%, being 55.1% and 49.5% among SAC and adolescents, respectively. We identified child's age (β = 2.21, P < 0.001); farm diversity score (β = 0.59, P = 0.036); and agro-ecological zone (P trend <0.001) as the main predictors of Hb of SAC. Household asset index (P trend = 0.042) and agro-ecological zone (P trend <0.001) were predictors of Hb in adolescents. Agro-ecological zone and age were predictors of anaemia, but the effect of age was only significant for girls and not boys (prevalence odds ratio [POR] = 1.35, 95% CI [1.04, 1.76] vs. POR = 1.14, 95% CI [0.88, 1.46]). SAC in households with maize stock were less likely to be anaemic (POR = 0.55, 95% CI [0.32, 0.97]). Household dietary diversity score (β = 0.59, P = 0.033) was associated with Hb status for the full sample only. Anaemia is a severe public health problem among SAC and adolescents in rural Ghana irrespective of sex. Farm diversity score, availability of maize stock in the household, household asset index, and agro-ecological zone were the main predictors of Hb and anaemia among the rural SAC and adolescents.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere12643
JournalMaternal and Child Nutrition
Volume15
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2019

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Ghana
Anemia
Hemoglobins
Odds Ratio
Zea mays
Farms
Public Health

Keywords

  • adolescents
  • agro-ecological zone
  • anaemia
  • Ghana
  • Haemoglobin (Hb)
  • school-aged children

Cite this

@article{7f19cb649f044f209485b645ef2c9a55,
title = "Agro-ecological zone and farm diversity are factors associated with haemoglobin and anaemia among rural school-aged children and adolescents in Ghana",
abstract = "Understanding contextual risk factors for haemoglobin (Hb) status and anaemia of rural school-aged children (SAC) and adolescents is critical in developing appropriate interventions to prevent anaemia. We analysed secondary data from the baseline of an impact evaluation of the Ghana School Feeding Programme to determine the severity of anaemia and contextual factors associated with anaemia and Hb status among rural SAC (6–9 years; n = 323) and adolescents (10–17 years; n = 319) in Ghana. We used regression models with variable selection based on backward elimination in our analyses. The mean Hb was 113.8 ± 13.1 g/L, and the overall prevalence of anaemia was 52.3{\%}, being 55.1{\%} and 49.5{\%} among SAC and adolescents, respectively. We identified child's age (β = 2.21, P < 0.001); farm diversity score (β = 0.59, P = 0.036); and agro-ecological zone (P trend <0.001) as the main predictors of Hb of SAC. Household asset index (P trend = 0.042) and agro-ecological zone (P trend <0.001) were predictors of Hb in adolescents. Agro-ecological zone and age were predictors of anaemia, but the effect of age was only significant for girls and not boys (prevalence odds ratio [POR] = 1.35, 95{\%} CI [1.04, 1.76] vs. POR = 1.14, 95{\%} CI [0.88, 1.46]). SAC in households with maize stock were less likely to be anaemic (POR = 0.55, 95{\%} CI [0.32, 0.97]). Household dietary diversity score (β = 0.59, P = 0.033) was associated with Hb status for the full sample only. Anaemia is a severe public health problem among SAC and adolescents in rural Ghana irrespective of sex. Farm diversity score, availability of maize stock in the household, household asset index, and agro-ecological zone were the main predictors of Hb and anaemia among the rural SAC and adolescents.",
keywords = "adolescents, agro-ecological zone, anaemia, Ghana, Haemoglobin (Hb), school-aged children",
author = "Fusta Azupogo and Elisabetta Aurino and Aulo Gelli and Bosompem, {Kwabena M.} and Irene Ayi and Osendarp, {Saskia J.M.} and Brouwer, {Inge D.} and Gloria Folson",
year = "2019",
month = "1",
doi = "10.1111/mcn.12643",
language = "English",
volume = "15",
journal = "Maternal and Child Nutrition",
issn = "1740-8695",
publisher = "Wiley",
number = "1",

}

Agro-ecological zone and farm diversity are factors associated with haemoglobin and anaemia among rural school-aged children and adolescents in Ghana. / Azupogo, Fusta; Aurino, Elisabetta; Gelli, Aulo; Bosompem, Kwabena M.; Ayi, Irene; Osendarp, Saskia J.M.; Brouwer, Inge D.; Folson, Gloria.

In: Maternal and Child Nutrition, Vol. 15, No. 1, e12643, 01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Agro-ecological zone and farm diversity are factors associated with haemoglobin and anaemia among rural school-aged children and adolescents in Ghana

AU - Azupogo, Fusta

AU - Aurino, Elisabetta

AU - Gelli, Aulo

AU - Bosompem, Kwabena M.

AU - Ayi, Irene

AU - Osendarp, Saskia J.M.

AU - Brouwer, Inge D.

AU - Folson, Gloria

PY - 2019/1

Y1 - 2019/1

N2 - Understanding contextual risk factors for haemoglobin (Hb) status and anaemia of rural school-aged children (SAC) and adolescents is critical in developing appropriate interventions to prevent anaemia. We analysed secondary data from the baseline of an impact evaluation of the Ghana School Feeding Programme to determine the severity of anaemia and contextual factors associated with anaemia and Hb status among rural SAC (6–9 years; n = 323) and adolescents (10–17 years; n = 319) in Ghana. We used regression models with variable selection based on backward elimination in our analyses. The mean Hb was 113.8 ± 13.1 g/L, and the overall prevalence of anaemia was 52.3%, being 55.1% and 49.5% among SAC and adolescents, respectively. We identified child's age (β = 2.21, P < 0.001); farm diversity score (β = 0.59, P = 0.036); and agro-ecological zone (P trend <0.001) as the main predictors of Hb of SAC. Household asset index (P trend = 0.042) and agro-ecological zone (P trend <0.001) were predictors of Hb in adolescents. Agro-ecological zone and age were predictors of anaemia, but the effect of age was only significant for girls and not boys (prevalence odds ratio [POR] = 1.35, 95% CI [1.04, 1.76] vs. POR = 1.14, 95% CI [0.88, 1.46]). SAC in households with maize stock were less likely to be anaemic (POR = 0.55, 95% CI [0.32, 0.97]). Household dietary diversity score (β = 0.59, P = 0.033) was associated with Hb status for the full sample only. Anaemia is a severe public health problem among SAC and adolescents in rural Ghana irrespective of sex. Farm diversity score, availability of maize stock in the household, household asset index, and agro-ecological zone were the main predictors of Hb and anaemia among the rural SAC and adolescents.

AB - Understanding contextual risk factors for haemoglobin (Hb) status and anaemia of rural school-aged children (SAC) and adolescents is critical in developing appropriate interventions to prevent anaemia. We analysed secondary data from the baseline of an impact evaluation of the Ghana School Feeding Programme to determine the severity of anaemia and contextual factors associated with anaemia and Hb status among rural SAC (6–9 years; n = 323) and adolescents (10–17 years; n = 319) in Ghana. We used regression models with variable selection based on backward elimination in our analyses. The mean Hb was 113.8 ± 13.1 g/L, and the overall prevalence of anaemia was 52.3%, being 55.1% and 49.5% among SAC and adolescents, respectively. We identified child's age (β = 2.21, P < 0.001); farm diversity score (β = 0.59, P = 0.036); and agro-ecological zone (P trend <0.001) as the main predictors of Hb of SAC. Household asset index (P trend = 0.042) and agro-ecological zone (P trend <0.001) were predictors of Hb in adolescents. Agro-ecological zone and age were predictors of anaemia, but the effect of age was only significant for girls and not boys (prevalence odds ratio [POR] = 1.35, 95% CI [1.04, 1.76] vs. POR = 1.14, 95% CI [0.88, 1.46]). SAC in households with maize stock were less likely to be anaemic (POR = 0.55, 95% CI [0.32, 0.97]). Household dietary diversity score (β = 0.59, P = 0.033) was associated with Hb status for the full sample only. Anaemia is a severe public health problem among SAC and adolescents in rural Ghana irrespective of sex. Farm diversity score, availability of maize stock in the household, household asset index, and agro-ecological zone were the main predictors of Hb and anaemia among the rural SAC and adolescents.

KW - adolescents

KW - agro-ecological zone

KW - anaemia

KW - Ghana

KW - Haemoglobin (Hb)

KW - school-aged children

U2 - 10.1111/mcn.12643

DO - 10.1111/mcn.12643

M3 - Article

VL - 15

JO - Maternal and Child Nutrition

JF - Maternal and Child Nutrition

SN - 1740-8695

IS - 1

M1 - e12643

ER -