Agency and Norms: Who Defines What Ought to Be?

Mike Angstadt, Ina Möller

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterAcademicpeer-review


Norms are conceptualized in different ways by ESG–Agency scholars, including as regulatory instruments, as part of the surrounding structure, as the outcome of a legitimation procedure, or as an expectation of the researcher. − Actors who engage with norms exercise agency by shaping, strategically interpreting, and using, as well as managing other actors’ interpretations of norms.− Future research could benefit from more explicitly theorizing the interaction of agency and norms by integrating existing empirical insights and increasing the geographic diversity of scholarship
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAgency in Earth System Governance
EditorsMichele M. Betsill, Tabitha M. Benney, Andrea K. Gerlak
Place of PublicationCambridge
PublisherCambridge University Press
ISBN (Electronic)9781108688277
ISBN (Print)9781108484053, 9781108705875
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • norms
  • law
  • learning
  • architecture
  • legitimacy
  • authority


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