Immune modulation of poultry by airborne pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP) was studied. White and Brown layer chicks were exposed intratracheally during 5 consecutive days at 7 wk of age with Escherichia coli-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Saccharomyces cerevisiae-derived 1,3 beta-glucan (BGL), a combination of both, or PBS as a control. Six weeks later, birds received similar or crossover PAMP treatments. Body weight (gain), feed conversion, (primary and secondary) specific antibody responses to model antigens, and natural antibody levels were measured. In general, BGL enhanced but LPS exposure decreased primary immune responses at 7 wk of age, whereas both PAMP-enhanced secondary immune responses but decreased primary immune responses at 13 wk of age. Body weight gain and feed conversion at both ages were negatively affected by LPS, especially in White birds, but not by BGL. Pathogen-associated molecular patterns exposure at 7 wk of age also affected Ab responses at 13 wk of age. Birds exposed to a combination of LPS + BGL at 7 wk of age had significantly lower secondary total and IgG Ab responses at 13 wk of age. Birds from both breeds showed enhanced BW gain after exposure to LPS at 13 wk of age, when initially challenged at 7 wk of age with LPS, BGL, or a combined challenge with both. Pathogen-associated molecular patterns exposure at 7 wk of age affected humoral immunity and BW gain at 13 wk of age in a positive (BGL) or negative (LPS) fashion. Repeated exposure to PAMP did not affect Ab responses, but crossover exposure to PAMP in general enhanced Ab responses. Body weight gain was positively affected by repeated exposure but not by crossover exposure, suggesting adaptation of the birds to early PAMP exposure. Our findings suggest that sensitivity of poultry for immune modulation by airborne PAMP differs between ages, is breed-dependent, and is not irreversible of nature. In addition, our data suggest different adaptation to hygienic conditions, both with respect to immune reactivity and BW gain.
- toll-like receptor-4
- lipoteichoic acid
Parmentier, H. K., Star, L., Sodoyer, S. C., Nieuwland, M. G. B., de Vries Reilingh, G., Lammers, A., & Kemp, B. (2006). Age- and Breed-Dependent Adapted Immune Responsiveness of Poultry to Intratracheal-Administered, Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns. Poultry Science, 85(12), 2156-2168. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/85.12.2156