An amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) map covering 965 cM was constructed using 94 recombinant inbred lines of a cross between the spring barley varieties Prisma and Apex. This map was employed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling plant height, yield and yield-determining physiological characters using an approximate multiple-QTL model, the MQM method. The seven physiological traits were parameters used in a process-based crop-growth model that predicts barley biomass production as affected by daily temperature and radiation. The traits were measured in experiments conducted over 2 years. Except for the relative growth rate of leaf area, all traits examined had at least one QTL in each year. QTLs and their effects were found to vary with developmental stages for one trait, the fraction of shoot biomass partitioned to leaves, that was measured at several stages. Most of the traits were associated, though to different extents, with the denso dwarfing gene (the height-reducing allele in Prisma) located on the long arm of chromosome 3. Some of the QTLs were mapped to similar positions in both years. The results in relation to effects of the dwarfing gene, the physiological basis for QTL x environment interaction, and the relative importance of the parameter traits with respect to yield, are discussed.