Aflatoxin B1 Conversion by Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) Larval Enzyme Extracts

Nathan Meijer, Geert Stoopen, H.J. van der Fels-Klerx, Joop J.A. van Loon, John Carney, Guido Bosch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

The larvae of the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L., BSFL) have received increased industrial interest as a novel protein source for food and feed. Previous research has found that insects, including BSFL, are capable of metabolically converting aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), but recovery of total AFB1 is less than 20% when accounting for its conversion to most known metabolites. The aim of this study was to examine the conversion of AFB1 by S9 extracts of BSFL reared on substrates with or without AFB1. Liver S9 of Aroclor-induced rats was used as a reference. To investigate whether cytochrome P450 enzymes are involved in the conversion of AFB1, the inhibitor piperonyl butoxide (PBO) was tested in a number of treatments. The results showed that approximately 60% of AFB1 was converted to aflatoxicol and aflatoxin P1. The remaining 40% of AFB1 was not converted. Cytochrome P450s were indeed responsible for metabolic conversion of AFB1 into AFP1, and a cytoplasmic reductase was most likely responsible for conversion of AFB1 into aflatoxicol.

Original languageEnglish
Article number532
JournalToxins
Volume11
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 12 Sep 2019

Fingerprint

Simuliidae
Aflatoxin B1
Military Personnel
Enzymes
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
Aroclors
Piperonyl Butoxide
Cytochromes
Metabolites
Liver
Larva
Insects
Rats
Oxidoreductases
Recovery
Food

Keywords

  • aflatoxin
  • black soldier fly
  • BSFL
  • cytochrome P450
  • enzyme induction
  • Hermetia illucens
  • metabolic conversion
  • mycotoxin
  • S9 fraction

Cite this

@article{f041adb44ae0483ea44bae98bbc2f3f2,
title = "Aflatoxin B1 Conversion by Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) Larval Enzyme Extracts",
abstract = "The larvae of the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L., BSFL) have received increased industrial interest as a novel protein source for food and feed. Previous research has found that insects, including BSFL, are capable of metabolically converting aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), but recovery of total AFB1 is less than 20{\%} when accounting for its conversion to most known metabolites. The aim of this study was to examine the conversion of AFB1 by S9 extracts of BSFL reared on substrates with or without AFB1. Liver S9 of Aroclor-induced rats was used as a reference. To investigate whether cytochrome P450 enzymes are involved in the conversion of AFB1, the inhibitor piperonyl butoxide (PBO) was tested in a number of treatments. The results showed that approximately 60{\%} of AFB1 was converted to aflatoxicol and aflatoxin P1. The remaining 40{\%} of AFB1 was not converted. Cytochrome P450s were indeed responsible for metabolic conversion of AFB1 into AFP1, and a cytoplasmic reductase was most likely responsible for conversion of AFB1 into aflatoxicol.",
keywords = "aflatoxin, black soldier fly, BSFL, cytochrome P450, enzyme induction, Hermetia illucens, metabolic conversion, mycotoxin, S9 fraction",
author = "Nathan Meijer and Geert Stoopen and {van der Fels-Klerx}, H.J. and {van Loon}, {Joop J.A.} and John Carney and Guido Bosch",
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journal = "Toxins",
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Aflatoxin B1 Conversion by Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) Larval Enzyme Extracts. / Meijer, Nathan; Stoopen, Geert; van der Fels-Klerx, H.J.; van Loon, Joop J.A.; Carney, John; Bosch, Guido.

In: Toxins, Vol. 11, No. 9, 532, 12.09.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Aflatoxin B1 Conversion by Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) Larval Enzyme Extracts

AU - Meijer, Nathan

AU - Stoopen, Geert

AU - van der Fels-Klerx, H.J.

AU - van Loon, Joop J.A.

AU - Carney, John

AU - Bosch, Guido

PY - 2019/9/12

Y1 - 2019/9/12

N2 - The larvae of the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L., BSFL) have received increased industrial interest as a novel protein source for food and feed. Previous research has found that insects, including BSFL, are capable of metabolically converting aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), but recovery of total AFB1 is less than 20% when accounting for its conversion to most known metabolites. The aim of this study was to examine the conversion of AFB1 by S9 extracts of BSFL reared on substrates with or without AFB1. Liver S9 of Aroclor-induced rats was used as a reference. To investigate whether cytochrome P450 enzymes are involved in the conversion of AFB1, the inhibitor piperonyl butoxide (PBO) was tested in a number of treatments. The results showed that approximately 60% of AFB1 was converted to aflatoxicol and aflatoxin P1. The remaining 40% of AFB1 was not converted. Cytochrome P450s were indeed responsible for metabolic conversion of AFB1 into AFP1, and a cytoplasmic reductase was most likely responsible for conversion of AFB1 into aflatoxicol.

AB - The larvae of the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L., BSFL) have received increased industrial interest as a novel protein source for food and feed. Previous research has found that insects, including BSFL, are capable of metabolically converting aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), but recovery of total AFB1 is less than 20% when accounting for its conversion to most known metabolites. The aim of this study was to examine the conversion of AFB1 by S9 extracts of BSFL reared on substrates with or without AFB1. Liver S9 of Aroclor-induced rats was used as a reference. To investigate whether cytochrome P450 enzymes are involved in the conversion of AFB1, the inhibitor piperonyl butoxide (PBO) was tested in a number of treatments. The results showed that approximately 60% of AFB1 was converted to aflatoxicol and aflatoxin P1. The remaining 40% of AFB1 was not converted. Cytochrome P450s were indeed responsible for metabolic conversion of AFB1 into AFP1, and a cytoplasmic reductase was most likely responsible for conversion of AFB1 into aflatoxicol.

KW - aflatoxin

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KW - enzyme induction

KW - Hermetia illucens

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KW - mycotoxin

KW - S9 fraction

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