Adverse results of the economic crisis: A study on the emergence of enhanced formaldehyde (HCHO) levels seen from satellites over Greek urban sites

I. Zyrichidou, D. Balis, M.E. Koukouli, T. Drosoglou, A. Bais, M. Gratsea, E. Gerasopoulos, N. Liora, A. Poupkou, C. Giannaros, D. Melas, I. De Smedt, M. Van Roozendael, R.J. van der A, K.F. Boersma, P. Valks, A. Richter

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Abstract

In order to study the years of the outbreak of the financial crisis in Greece, we use a continuous eight-year record (2008–2015) of formaldehyde, HCHO, columns retrieved from the GOME-2/MetOp-A and GOME-2/MetOp-B satellite instruments over two urban Greek regions, Thessaloniki and Athens. A statistical linear regression analysis that was applied to the GOME-2/MetOp-A HCHO time series over both cities revealed positive annual changes. On seasonal basis, the wintertime HCHO change per annum was found to be 7.43 ± 2.26% and 6.13 ± 2.12% over Thessaloniki and Athens, respectively. A corresponding seasonal time series analysis was also applied to tropospheric nitrogen dioxide, NO 2 , levels. The tropospheric NO 2 winter change per annum is shown to be negative, at −3.0 ± 0.13% and −3.94 ± 0.14% over Thessaloniki and Athens, respectively. The satellite HCHO and NO 2 observations levels are comparable to collocated ground-based MAX-DOAS measurements. Furthermore, the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions chemical transport model, CAMx CTM, as well as the driving emission inventory in CAMx are used for further investigation of the seasonality of the HCHO concentrations and emissions. The CTM model analysis of the annual HCHO cycle and the winter season anti-correlation between HCHO total columns and surface temperature, mostly over Thessaloniki (R = –0.3), point to the fact that the winter HCHO enhancements, likely connected with enhanced anthropogenic activities, are not being captured by the model. The results of this study indicate a possible enhanced anthropogenic activity during the winter season that was strengthened through the investigation on the origins of the wintertime increase in HCHO columns since the beginning of the economic crisis in the country.

LanguageEnglish
Pages42-51
JournalAtmospheric Research
Volume224
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2019

Fingerprint

urban site
MetOp
GOME
formaldehyde
winter
economics
human activity
urban region
financial crisis
nitrogen dioxide
time series analysis
emission inventory
annual cycle
seasonality
regression analysis
air quality
surface temperature
time series

Keywords

  • Biomass burning
  • GOME-2 instrument
  • HCHO
  • NO
  • Urban air pollution

Cite this

Zyrichidou, I. ; Balis, D. ; Koukouli, M.E. ; Drosoglou, T. ; Bais, A. ; Gratsea, M. ; Gerasopoulos, E. ; Liora, N. ; Poupkou, A. ; Giannaros, C. ; Melas, D. ; De Smedt, I. ; Van Roozendael, M. ; van der A, R.J. ; Boersma, K.F. ; Valks, P. ; Richter, A. / Adverse results of the economic crisis : A study on the emergence of enhanced formaldehyde (HCHO) levels seen from satellites over Greek urban sites. In: Atmospheric Research. 2019 ; Vol. 224. pp. 42-51.
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title = "Adverse results of the economic crisis: A study on the emergence of enhanced formaldehyde (HCHO) levels seen from satellites over Greek urban sites",
abstract = "In order to study the years of the outbreak of the financial crisis in Greece, we use a continuous eight-year record (2008–2015) of formaldehyde, HCHO, columns retrieved from the GOME-2/MetOp-A and GOME-2/MetOp-B satellite instruments over two urban Greek regions, Thessaloniki and Athens. A statistical linear regression analysis that was applied to the GOME-2/MetOp-A HCHO time series over both cities revealed positive annual changes. On seasonal basis, the wintertime HCHO change per annum was found to be 7.43 ± 2.26{\%} and 6.13 ± 2.12{\%} over Thessaloniki and Athens, respectively. A corresponding seasonal time series analysis was also applied to tropospheric nitrogen dioxide, NO 2 , levels. The tropospheric NO 2 winter change per annum is shown to be negative, at −3.0 ± 0.13{\%} and −3.94 ± 0.14{\%} over Thessaloniki and Athens, respectively. The satellite HCHO and NO 2 observations levels are comparable to collocated ground-based MAX-DOAS measurements. Furthermore, the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions chemical transport model, CAMx CTM, as well as the driving emission inventory in CAMx are used for further investigation of the seasonality of the HCHO concentrations and emissions. The CTM model analysis of the annual HCHO cycle and the winter season anti-correlation between HCHO total columns and surface temperature, mostly over Thessaloniki (R = –0.3), point to the fact that the winter HCHO enhancements, likely connected with enhanced anthropogenic activities, are not being captured by the model. The results of this study indicate a possible enhanced anthropogenic activity during the winter season that was strengthened through the investigation on the origins of the wintertime increase in HCHO columns since the beginning of the economic crisis in the country.",
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author = "I. Zyrichidou and D. Balis and M.E. Koukouli and T. Drosoglou and A. Bais and M. Gratsea and E. Gerasopoulos and N. Liora and A. Poupkou and C. Giannaros and D. Melas and {De Smedt}, I. and {Van Roozendael}, M. and {van der A}, R.J. and K.F. Boersma and P. Valks and A. Richter",
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Zyrichidou, I, Balis, D, Koukouli, ME, Drosoglou, T, Bais, A, Gratsea, M, Gerasopoulos, E, Liora, N, Poupkou, A, Giannaros, C, Melas, D, De Smedt, I, Van Roozendael, M, van der A, RJ, Boersma, KF, Valks, P & Richter, A 2019, 'Adverse results of the economic crisis: A study on the emergence of enhanced formaldehyde (HCHO) levels seen from satellites over Greek urban sites', Atmospheric Research, vol. 224, pp. 42-51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2019.03.017

Adverse results of the economic crisis : A study on the emergence of enhanced formaldehyde (HCHO) levels seen from satellites over Greek urban sites. / Zyrichidou, I.; Balis, D.; Koukouli, M.E.; Drosoglou, T.; Bais, A.; Gratsea, M.; Gerasopoulos, E.; Liora, N.; Poupkou, A.; Giannaros, C.; Melas, D.; De Smedt, I.; Van Roozendael, M.; van der A, R.J.; Boersma, K.F.; Valks, P.; Richter, A.

In: Atmospheric Research, Vol. 224, 01.08.2019, p. 42-51.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Adverse results of the economic crisis

T2 - Atmospheric Research

AU - Zyrichidou, I.

AU - Balis, D.

AU - Koukouli, M.E.

AU - Drosoglou, T.

AU - Bais, A.

AU - Gratsea, M.

AU - Gerasopoulos, E.

AU - Liora, N.

AU - Poupkou, A.

AU - Giannaros, C.

AU - Melas, D.

AU - De Smedt, I.

AU - Van Roozendael, M.

AU - van der A, R.J.

AU - Boersma, K.F.

AU - Valks, P.

AU - Richter, A.

PY - 2019/8/1

Y1 - 2019/8/1

N2 - In order to study the years of the outbreak of the financial crisis in Greece, we use a continuous eight-year record (2008–2015) of formaldehyde, HCHO, columns retrieved from the GOME-2/MetOp-A and GOME-2/MetOp-B satellite instruments over two urban Greek regions, Thessaloniki and Athens. A statistical linear regression analysis that was applied to the GOME-2/MetOp-A HCHO time series over both cities revealed positive annual changes. On seasonal basis, the wintertime HCHO change per annum was found to be 7.43 ± 2.26% and 6.13 ± 2.12% over Thessaloniki and Athens, respectively. A corresponding seasonal time series analysis was also applied to tropospheric nitrogen dioxide, NO 2 , levels. The tropospheric NO 2 winter change per annum is shown to be negative, at −3.0 ± 0.13% and −3.94 ± 0.14% over Thessaloniki and Athens, respectively. The satellite HCHO and NO 2 observations levels are comparable to collocated ground-based MAX-DOAS measurements. Furthermore, the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions chemical transport model, CAMx CTM, as well as the driving emission inventory in CAMx are used for further investigation of the seasonality of the HCHO concentrations and emissions. The CTM model analysis of the annual HCHO cycle and the winter season anti-correlation between HCHO total columns and surface temperature, mostly over Thessaloniki (R = –0.3), point to the fact that the winter HCHO enhancements, likely connected with enhanced anthropogenic activities, are not being captured by the model. The results of this study indicate a possible enhanced anthropogenic activity during the winter season that was strengthened through the investigation on the origins of the wintertime increase in HCHO columns since the beginning of the economic crisis in the country.

AB - In order to study the years of the outbreak of the financial crisis in Greece, we use a continuous eight-year record (2008–2015) of formaldehyde, HCHO, columns retrieved from the GOME-2/MetOp-A and GOME-2/MetOp-B satellite instruments over two urban Greek regions, Thessaloniki and Athens. A statistical linear regression analysis that was applied to the GOME-2/MetOp-A HCHO time series over both cities revealed positive annual changes. On seasonal basis, the wintertime HCHO change per annum was found to be 7.43 ± 2.26% and 6.13 ± 2.12% over Thessaloniki and Athens, respectively. A corresponding seasonal time series analysis was also applied to tropospheric nitrogen dioxide, NO 2 , levels. The tropospheric NO 2 winter change per annum is shown to be negative, at −3.0 ± 0.13% and −3.94 ± 0.14% over Thessaloniki and Athens, respectively. The satellite HCHO and NO 2 observations levels are comparable to collocated ground-based MAX-DOAS measurements. Furthermore, the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions chemical transport model, CAMx CTM, as well as the driving emission inventory in CAMx are used for further investigation of the seasonality of the HCHO concentrations and emissions. The CTM model analysis of the annual HCHO cycle and the winter season anti-correlation between HCHO total columns and surface temperature, mostly over Thessaloniki (R = –0.3), point to the fact that the winter HCHO enhancements, likely connected with enhanced anthropogenic activities, are not being captured by the model. The results of this study indicate a possible enhanced anthropogenic activity during the winter season that was strengthened through the investigation on the origins of the wintertime increase in HCHO columns since the beginning of the economic crisis in the country.

KW - Biomass burning

KW - GOME-2 instrument

KW - HCHO

KW - NO

KW - Urban air pollution

U2 - 10.1016/j.atmosres.2019.03.017

DO - 10.1016/j.atmosres.2019.03.017

M3 - Article

VL - 224

SP - 42

EP - 51

JO - Atmospheric Research

JF - Atmospheric Research

SN - 0169-8095

ER -