Advancing CapMix for electricity generation : system operation, cell design and material selection

F. Liu

Research output: Thesisinternal PhD, WU



Capacitive energy extraction of the mixing process, also referred as Capacitive Mixing (CapMix), is a novel and promising technology that can convert salinity gradient power into electricity directly. This technology uses two porous activated carbon electrodes. The energy extraction is directly linked to the mixing process, while no emission of greenhouse gases and no thermal pollution occur. This emerging CapMix technology is still immature. In order to transform the proof-of-principle into a viable technology, many questions remain to be answered, not only in science (i.e. understanding what is happening), but also in technology (i.e. how to design and manufacture the system). In this thesis, the author investigated the optimized way to operate the system. Moreover, models were developed to understand the physical-chemical process; material including ion exchange membranes and activated carbon electrodes were evaluated; and the innovative cell design was made.

Original languageEnglish
QualificationDoctor of Philosophy
Awarding Institution
  • Wageningen University
  • Buisman, Cees, Promotor
  • Hamelers, Bert, Co-promotor
Award date10 Jun 2015
Place of PublicationWageningen
Print ISBNs9789462573079
Publication statusPublished - 2015


  • renewable energy
  • bioenergy
  • energy sources
  • capacitance
  • mixing
  • saline water
  • fresh water
  • electrodialysis
  • biobased economy


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