Livestock feed encompasses both human edible and human inedible components. Human edible feed components may become less available for livestock. Especially for proteins, this calls for action. This review focuses on using alternative protein sources in feed and protein efficiency, the expected problems, and how these problems could be solved. Breeding for higher protein efficiency leading to less use of the protein sources may be one strategy. Replacing (part of) the human edible feed components with human inedible components may be another strategy, which could be combined with breeding for livestock that can efficiently digest novel protein feed sources. The potential use of novel protein sources is discussed. We discuss the present knowledge on novel protein sources, including the consequences for animal performance and production costs, and make recommendations for the use and optimization of novel protein sources (1) to improve our knowledge on the inclusion of human inedible protein into the diet of livestock, (2) because cooperation between animal breeders and nutritionists is needed to share knowledge and combine expertise, and (3) to investigate the effect of animal-specific digestibility of protein sources for selective breeding for each protein source and for precision feeding. Nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics will be im-portant tools.
- Human edible protein sources
- Human inedible protein sources
- Protein efficiency