Acute Stress and an Electrolyte- Imbalanced Diet, but Not Chronic Hypoxia, Increase Oxidative Stress and Hamper Innate Immune Status in a Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Isogenic Line

Leonardo J. Magnoni, Sara C. Novais, Ep Eding, Isabelle Leguen, Marco F.L. Lemos, Rodrigo O.A. Ozório, Inge Geurden, Patrick Prunet, Johan W. Schrama

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

In aquaculture, fish may be exposed to sub-optimal rearing conditions, which generate a stress response if full adaptation is not displayed. However, our current knowledge of several coexisting factors that may give rise to a stress response is limited, in particular when both chronic and acute stressors are involved. This study investigated changes in metabolic parameters, oxidative stress and innate immune markers in a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) isogenic line exposed to a combination of dietary (electrolyte-imbalanced diet, DEB 700 mEq Kg-1) and environmental (hypoxia, 4.5 mg O2 L-1) challenges and their respective controls (electrolyte-balanced diet, DEB 200 mEq Kg-1 and normoxia, 7.9 or mg O2 L-1) for 49 days. At the end of this period, fish were sampled or subjected to an acute stressor (2 min of handling/confinement) and then sampled. Feeding trout an electrolyte-imbalanced diet produced a reduction in blood pH, as well as increases in cortisol levels, hepato-somatic index (HSI) and total energy content in the liver. The ratio between the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) activities decreased in the liver of trout fed the DEB 700 diet, but increased in the heart, suggesting a different modulation of metabolic capacity by the dietary challenge. Several markers of oxidative stress in the liver of trout, mainly related to the glutathione antioxidant system, were altered when fed the electrolyte-imbalanced diet. The dietary challenge was also associated with a decrease in the alternative complement pathway activity (ACH50) in plasma, suggesting an impaired innate immune status in that group. Trout subjected to the acute stressor displayed reduced blood pH values, higher plasma cortisol levels as well as increased levels of metabolic markers associated with oxidative stress in the liver. An interaction between diet and acute stressor was detected for oxidative stress markers in the liver of trout, showing that the chronic electrolyte-imbalance impairs the response of rainbow trout to handling/confinement. However, trout reared under chronic hypoxia only displayed changes in parameters related to energy use in both liver and heart. Taken together, these results suggest that trout displays an adaptative response to chronic hypoxia. Conversely, the dietary challenge profoundly affected fish homeostasis, resulting in an impaired physiological response leading to stress, which then placed constraints on a subsequent acute challenge
LanguageEnglish
Article number453
Number of pages14
JournalFrontiers in Physiology
Volume10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 24 Apr 2019

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Trout
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Electrolytes
Oxidative Stress
Diet
Liver
Fishes
Hydrocortisone
Alternative Complement Pathway
Isocitrate Dehydrogenase
Aquaculture
Hypoxia
L-Lactate Dehydrogenase
Glutathione
Homeostasis
Antioxidants
Biomarkers

Cite this

@article{2c4e71e7a6274b05b9b727529ba94ea8,
title = "Acute Stress and an Electrolyte- Imbalanced Diet, but Not Chronic Hypoxia, Increase Oxidative Stress and Hamper Innate Immune Status in a Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Isogenic Line",
abstract = "In aquaculture, fish may be exposed to sub-optimal rearing conditions, which generate a stress response if full adaptation is not displayed. However, our current knowledge of several coexisting factors that may give rise to a stress response is limited, in particular when both chronic and acute stressors are involved. This study investigated changes in metabolic parameters, oxidative stress and innate immune markers in a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) isogenic line exposed to a combination of dietary (electrolyte-imbalanced diet, DEB 700 mEq Kg-1) and environmental (hypoxia, 4.5 mg O2 L-1) challenges and their respective controls (electrolyte-balanced diet, DEB 200 mEq Kg-1 and normoxia, 7.9 or mg O2 L-1) for 49 days. At the end of this period, fish were sampled or subjected to an acute stressor (2 min of handling/confinement) and then sampled. Feeding trout an electrolyte-imbalanced diet produced a reduction in blood pH, as well as increases in cortisol levels, hepato-somatic index (HSI) and total energy content in the liver. The ratio between the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) activities decreased in the liver of trout fed the DEB 700 diet, but increased in the heart, suggesting a different modulation of metabolic capacity by the dietary challenge. Several markers of oxidative stress in the liver of trout, mainly related to the glutathione antioxidant system, were altered when fed the electrolyte-imbalanced diet. The dietary challenge was also associated with a decrease in the alternative complement pathway activity (ACH50) in plasma, suggesting an impaired innate immune status in that group. Trout subjected to the acute stressor displayed reduced blood pH values, higher plasma cortisol levels as well as increased levels of metabolic markers associated with oxidative stress in the liver. An interaction between diet and acute stressor was detected for oxidative stress markers in the liver of trout, showing that the chronic electrolyte-imbalance impairs the response of rainbow trout to handling/confinement. However, trout reared under chronic hypoxia only displayed changes in parameters related to energy use in both liver and heart. Taken together, these results suggest that trout displays an adaptative response to chronic hypoxia. Conversely, the dietary challenge profoundly affected fish homeostasis, resulting in an impaired physiological response leading to stress, which then placed constraints on a subsequent acute challenge",
author = "Magnoni, {Leonardo J.} and Novais, {Sara C.} and Ep Eding and Isabelle Leguen and Lemos, {Marco F.L.} and Oz{\'o}rio, {Rodrigo O.A.} and Inge Geurden and Patrick Prunet and Schrama, {Johan W.}",
year = "2019",
month = "4",
day = "24",
doi = "10.3389/fphys.2019.00453",
language = "English",
volume = "10",
journal = "Frontiers in Physiology",
issn = "1664-042X",
publisher = "Frontiers",

}

Acute Stress and an Electrolyte- Imbalanced Diet, but Not Chronic Hypoxia, Increase Oxidative Stress and Hamper Innate Immune Status in a Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Isogenic Line. / Magnoni, Leonardo J.; Novais, Sara C.; Eding, Ep; Leguen, Isabelle; Lemos, Marco F.L.; Ozório, Rodrigo O.A.; Geurden, Inge; Prunet, Patrick; Schrama, Johan W.

In: Frontiers in Physiology, Vol. 10, 453, 24.04.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Acute Stress and an Electrolyte- Imbalanced Diet, but Not Chronic Hypoxia, Increase Oxidative Stress and Hamper Innate Immune Status in a Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Isogenic Line

AU - Magnoni, Leonardo J.

AU - Novais, Sara C.

AU - Eding, Ep

AU - Leguen, Isabelle

AU - Lemos, Marco F.L.

AU - Ozório, Rodrigo O.A.

AU - Geurden, Inge

AU - Prunet, Patrick

AU - Schrama, Johan W.

PY - 2019/4/24

Y1 - 2019/4/24

N2 - In aquaculture, fish may be exposed to sub-optimal rearing conditions, which generate a stress response if full adaptation is not displayed. However, our current knowledge of several coexisting factors that may give rise to a stress response is limited, in particular when both chronic and acute stressors are involved. This study investigated changes in metabolic parameters, oxidative stress and innate immune markers in a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) isogenic line exposed to a combination of dietary (electrolyte-imbalanced diet, DEB 700 mEq Kg-1) and environmental (hypoxia, 4.5 mg O2 L-1) challenges and their respective controls (electrolyte-balanced diet, DEB 200 mEq Kg-1 and normoxia, 7.9 or mg O2 L-1) for 49 days. At the end of this period, fish were sampled or subjected to an acute stressor (2 min of handling/confinement) and then sampled. Feeding trout an electrolyte-imbalanced diet produced a reduction in blood pH, as well as increases in cortisol levels, hepato-somatic index (HSI) and total energy content in the liver. The ratio between the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) activities decreased in the liver of trout fed the DEB 700 diet, but increased in the heart, suggesting a different modulation of metabolic capacity by the dietary challenge. Several markers of oxidative stress in the liver of trout, mainly related to the glutathione antioxidant system, were altered when fed the electrolyte-imbalanced diet. The dietary challenge was also associated with a decrease in the alternative complement pathway activity (ACH50) in plasma, suggesting an impaired innate immune status in that group. Trout subjected to the acute stressor displayed reduced blood pH values, higher plasma cortisol levels as well as increased levels of metabolic markers associated with oxidative stress in the liver. An interaction between diet and acute stressor was detected for oxidative stress markers in the liver of trout, showing that the chronic electrolyte-imbalance impairs the response of rainbow trout to handling/confinement. However, trout reared under chronic hypoxia only displayed changes in parameters related to energy use in both liver and heart. Taken together, these results suggest that trout displays an adaptative response to chronic hypoxia. Conversely, the dietary challenge profoundly affected fish homeostasis, resulting in an impaired physiological response leading to stress, which then placed constraints on a subsequent acute challenge

AB - In aquaculture, fish may be exposed to sub-optimal rearing conditions, which generate a stress response if full adaptation is not displayed. However, our current knowledge of several coexisting factors that may give rise to a stress response is limited, in particular when both chronic and acute stressors are involved. This study investigated changes in metabolic parameters, oxidative stress and innate immune markers in a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) isogenic line exposed to a combination of dietary (electrolyte-imbalanced diet, DEB 700 mEq Kg-1) and environmental (hypoxia, 4.5 mg O2 L-1) challenges and their respective controls (electrolyte-balanced diet, DEB 200 mEq Kg-1 and normoxia, 7.9 or mg O2 L-1) for 49 days. At the end of this period, fish were sampled or subjected to an acute stressor (2 min of handling/confinement) and then sampled. Feeding trout an electrolyte-imbalanced diet produced a reduction in blood pH, as well as increases in cortisol levels, hepato-somatic index (HSI) and total energy content in the liver. The ratio between the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) activities decreased in the liver of trout fed the DEB 700 diet, but increased in the heart, suggesting a different modulation of metabolic capacity by the dietary challenge. Several markers of oxidative stress in the liver of trout, mainly related to the glutathione antioxidant system, were altered when fed the electrolyte-imbalanced diet. The dietary challenge was also associated with a decrease in the alternative complement pathway activity (ACH50) in plasma, suggesting an impaired innate immune status in that group. Trout subjected to the acute stressor displayed reduced blood pH values, higher plasma cortisol levels as well as increased levels of metabolic markers associated with oxidative stress in the liver. An interaction between diet and acute stressor was detected for oxidative stress markers in the liver of trout, showing that the chronic electrolyte-imbalance impairs the response of rainbow trout to handling/confinement. However, trout reared under chronic hypoxia only displayed changes in parameters related to energy use in both liver and heart. Taken together, these results suggest that trout displays an adaptative response to chronic hypoxia. Conversely, the dietary challenge profoundly affected fish homeostasis, resulting in an impaired physiological response leading to stress, which then placed constraints on a subsequent acute challenge

U2 - 10.3389/fphys.2019.00453

DO - 10.3389/fphys.2019.00453

M3 - Article

VL - 10

JO - Frontiers in Physiology

T2 - Frontiers in Physiology

JF - Frontiers in Physiology

SN - 1664-042X

M1 - 453

ER -