Actual European forest management by region, tree species and owner based on 714,000 re-measured trees in national forest inventories

Mart-Jan Schelhaas, Jonas Fridman, Geerten M. Hengeveld, Helena M. Henttonen, Aleksi Lehtonen, Uwe Kies, Nike Krajnc, Bas Lerink, Áine Ní Dhubháin, Heino Polley, Thomas A.M. Pugh, John J. Redmond, Brigitte Rohner, Cristian Temperli, Jordi Vayreda, Gert-Jan Nabuurs, Marc Hanewinkel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background
European forests have a long record of management. However, the diversity of the current forest management across nations, tree species and owners, is hardly understood. Often when trying to simulate future forest resources under alternative futures, simply the yield table style of harvesting is applied. It is now crucially important to come to grips with actual forest management, now that demand for wood is increasing and the EU Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry Regulation has been adopted requiring ‘continuation of current management practices’ as a baseline to set the Forest Reference Level carbon sink.
Methods
Based on a large dataset of 714,000 re-measured trees in National Forest inventories from 13 regions, we are now able to analyse actual forest harvesting.
Conclusions
From this large set of repeated tree measurements we can conclude that there is no such thing as yield table harvesting in Europe. We found general trends of increasing harvest probability with higher productivity of the region and the species, but with important deviations related to local conditions like site accessibility, state of the forest resource (like age), specific subsidies, importance of other forest services, and ownership of the forest. As a result, we find a huge diversity in harvest regimes. Over the time period covered in our inventories, the average harvest probability over all regions was 2.4% yr-1 (in number of trees) and the mortality probability was 0.4% yr-1. Our study provides underlying and most actual data that can serve as a basis for quantifying ‘continuation of current forest management’. It can be used as a cornerstone for the base period as required for the Forest Reference Level for EU Member States.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0207151
JournalPLoS ONE
Volume13
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 12 Nov 2018

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Forestry
national forests
forest inventory
forest management
Equipment and Supplies
forest resources
Land use
forest ownership
forestry law
state forests
subsidies
carbon sinks
tree and stand measurements
land use change
logging
Wood
Carbon
land use
Productivity
Forests

Cite this

Schelhaas, Mart-Jan ; Fridman, Jonas ; Hengeveld, Geerten M. ; Henttonen, Helena M. ; Lehtonen, Aleksi ; Kies, Uwe ; Krajnc, Nike ; Lerink, Bas ; Ní Dhubháin, Áine ; Polley, Heino ; Pugh, Thomas A.M. ; Redmond, John J. ; Rohner, Brigitte ; Temperli, Cristian ; Vayreda, Jordi ; Nabuurs, Gert-Jan ; Hanewinkel, Marc. / Actual European forest management by region, tree species and owner based on 714,000 re-measured trees in national forest inventories. In: PLoS ONE. 2018 ; Vol. 13, No. 11.
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title = "Actual European forest management by region, tree species and owner based on 714,000 re-measured trees in national forest inventories",
abstract = "BackgroundEuropean forests have a long record of management. However, the diversity of the current forest management across nations, tree species and owners, is hardly understood. Often when trying to simulate future forest resources under alternative futures, simply the yield table style of harvesting is applied. It is now crucially important to come to grips with actual forest management, now that demand for wood is increasing and the EU Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry Regulation has been adopted requiring ‘continuation of current management practices’ as a baseline to set the Forest Reference Level carbon sink.MethodsBased on a large dataset of 714,000 re-measured trees in National Forest inventories from 13 regions, we are now able to analyse actual forest harvesting.ConclusionsFrom this large set of repeated tree measurements we can conclude that there is no such thing as yield table harvesting in Europe. We found general trends of increasing harvest probability with higher productivity of the region and the species, but with important deviations related to local conditions like site accessibility, state of the forest resource (like age), specific subsidies, importance of other forest services, and ownership of the forest. As a result, we find a huge diversity in harvest regimes. Over the time period covered in our inventories, the average harvest probability over all regions was 2.4{\%} yr-1 (in number of trees) and the mortality probability was 0.4{\%} yr-1. Our study provides underlying and most actual data that can serve as a basis for quantifying ‘continuation of current forest management’. It can be used as a cornerstone for the base period as required for the Forest Reference Level for EU Member States.",
author = "Mart-Jan Schelhaas and Jonas Fridman and Hengeveld, {Geerten M.} and Henttonen, {Helena M.} and Aleksi Lehtonen and Uwe Kies and Nike Krajnc and Bas Lerink and {N{\'i} Dhubh{\'a}in}, {\'A}ine and Heino Polley and Pugh, {Thomas A.M.} and Redmond, {John J.} and Brigitte Rohner and Cristian Temperli and Jordi Vayreda and Gert-Jan Nabuurs and Marc Hanewinkel",
year = "2018",
month = "11",
day = "12",
doi = "10.1371/journal.pone.0207151",
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Schelhaas, M-J, Fridman, J, Hengeveld, GM, Henttonen, HM, Lehtonen, A, Kies, U, Krajnc, N, Lerink, B, Ní Dhubháin, Á, Polley, H, Pugh, TAM, Redmond, JJ, Rohner, B, Temperli, C, Vayreda, J, Nabuurs, G-J & Hanewinkel, M 2018, 'Actual European forest management by region, tree species and owner based on 714,000 re-measured trees in national forest inventories', PLoS ONE, vol. 13, no. 11, e0207151. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0207151

Actual European forest management by region, tree species and owner based on 714,000 re-measured trees in national forest inventories. / Schelhaas, Mart-Jan; Fridman, Jonas; Hengeveld, Geerten M.; Henttonen, Helena M.; Lehtonen, Aleksi; Kies, Uwe; Krajnc, Nike; Lerink, Bas; Ní Dhubháin, Áine; Polley, Heino; Pugh, Thomas A.M.; Redmond, John J.; Rohner, Brigitte; Temperli, Cristian; Vayreda, Jordi; Nabuurs, Gert-Jan; Hanewinkel, Marc.

In: PLoS ONE, Vol. 13, No. 11, e0207151, 12.11.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Actual European forest management by region, tree species and owner based on 714,000 re-measured trees in national forest inventories

AU - Schelhaas, Mart-Jan

AU - Fridman, Jonas

AU - Hengeveld, Geerten M.

AU - Henttonen, Helena M.

AU - Lehtonen, Aleksi

AU - Kies, Uwe

AU - Krajnc, Nike

AU - Lerink, Bas

AU - Ní Dhubháin, Áine

AU - Polley, Heino

AU - Pugh, Thomas A.M.

AU - Redmond, John J.

AU - Rohner, Brigitte

AU - Temperli, Cristian

AU - Vayreda, Jordi

AU - Nabuurs, Gert-Jan

AU - Hanewinkel, Marc

PY - 2018/11/12

Y1 - 2018/11/12

N2 - BackgroundEuropean forests have a long record of management. However, the diversity of the current forest management across nations, tree species and owners, is hardly understood. Often when trying to simulate future forest resources under alternative futures, simply the yield table style of harvesting is applied. It is now crucially important to come to grips with actual forest management, now that demand for wood is increasing and the EU Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry Regulation has been adopted requiring ‘continuation of current management practices’ as a baseline to set the Forest Reference Level carbon sink.MethodsBased on a large dataset of 714,000 re-measured trees in National Forest inventories from 13 regions, we are now able to analyse actual forest harvesting.ConclusionsFrom this large set of repeated tree measurements we can conclude that there is no such thing as yield table harvesting in Europe. We found general trends of increasing harvest probability with higher productivity of the region and the species, but with important deviations related to local conditions like site accessibility, state of the forest resource (like age), specific subsidies, importance of other forest services, and ownership of the forest. As a result, we find a huge diversity in harvest regimes. Over the time period covered in our inventories, the average harvest probability over all regions was 2.4% yr-1 (in number of trees) and the mortality probability was 0.4% yr-1. Our study provides underlying and most actual data that can serve as a basis for quantifying ‘continuation of current forest management’. It can be used as a cornerstone for the base period as required for the Forest Reference Level for EU Member States.

AB - BackgroundEuropean forests have a long record of management. However, the diversity of the current forest management across nations, tree species and owners, is hardly understood. Often when trying to simulate future forest resources under alternative futures, simply the yield table style of harvesting is applied. It is now crucially important to come to grips with actual forest management, now that demand for wood is increasing and the EU Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry Regulation has been adopted requiring ‘continuation of current management practices’ as a baseline to set the Forest Reference Level carbon sink.MethodsBased on a large dataset of 714,000 re-measured trees in National Forest inventories from 13 regions, we are now able to analyse actual forest harvesting.ConclusionsFrom this large set of repeated tree measurements we can conclude that there is no such thing as yield table harvesting in Europe. We found general trends of increasing harvest probability with higher productivity of the region and the species, but with important deviations related to local conditions like site accessibility, state of the forest resource (like age), specific subsidies, importance of other forest services, and ownership of the forest. As a result, we find a huge diversity in harvest regimes. Over the time period covered in our inventories, the average harvest probability over all regions was 2.4% yr-1 (in number of trees) and the mortality probability was 0.4% yr-1. Our study provides underlying and most actual data that can serve as a basis for quantifying ‘continuation of current forest management’. It can be used as a cornerstone for the base period as required for the Forest Reference Level for EU Member States.

U2 - 10.1371/journal.pone.0207151

DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0207151

M3 - Article

VL - 13

JO - PLoS ONE

JF - PLoS ONE

SN - 1932-6203

IS - 11

M1 - e0207151

ER -