Dictyostelium contains two guanylyl cyclases, GCA, a 12-transmembrane enzyme, and sGC, a homologue of mammalian soluble adenylyl cyclase. sGC provides nearly all chemoattractant-stimulated cGMP formation and is essential for efficient chemotaxis toward cAMP. We show that in resting cells the major fraction of the sGC-GFP fusion protein localizes to the cytosol, and a small fraction is associated to the cell cortex. With the artificial substrate Mn 2+/GTP, sGC activity and protein exhibit a similar distribution between soluble and particulate fraction of cell lysates. However, with the physiological substrate Mg2+/GTP, sGC in the cytosol is nearly inactive, whereas the particulate enzyme shows high enzyme activity. Reconstitution experiments reveal that inactive cytosolic sGC acquires catalytic activity with Mg2+/GTP upon association to the membrane. Stimulation of cells with cAMP results in a twofold increase of membrane-localized sGC-GFP, which is accompanied by an increase of the membrane-associated, guanylyl cyclase activity. In a cAMP gradient, sGC-GFP localizes to the anterior cell cortex, suggesting that in chemotacting cells, sGC is activated at the leading edge of the cell.
Veltman, D. M., Roelofs, J., Engel, R., Visser, A. J. W. G., & van Haastert, P. J. M. (2005). Activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase at the leading edge during Dictyostelium chemotaxis. Molecular Biology of the Cell, 16(2), 976-983. https://doi.org/10.1091/mbc.E04-08-0701