Copper-dependent lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) classified in Auxiliary Activity (AA) families are considered indispensable as synergistic partners for cellulolytic enzymes to saccharify recalcitrant lignocellulosic plant biomass. In this study, we characterized two fungal oxidoreductases from the new AA16 family. We found that MtAA16A from Myceliophthora thermophila and AnAA16A from Aspergillus nidulans did not catalyze the oxidative cleavage of oligo- and polysaccharides. Indeed, the MtAA16A crystal structure showed a fairly LPMO-typical histidine brace active site, but the cellulose-acting LPMO-typical flat aromatic surface parallel to the histidine brace region was lacking. Further, we showed that both AA16 proteins are able to oxidize low-molecular-weight reductants to produce H2O2. The oxidase activity of the AA16s substantially boosted cellulose degradation by four AA9 LPMOs from M. thermophila (MtLPMO9s) but not by three AA9 LPMOs from Neurospora crassa (NcLPMO9s). The interplay with MtLPMO9s is explained by the H2O2-producing capability of the AA16s, which, in the presence of cellulose, allows the MtLPMO9s to optimally drive their peroxygenase activity. Replacement of MtAA16A by glucose oxidase (AnGOX) with the same H2O2-producing activity could only achieve less than 50% of the boosting effect achieved by MtAA16A, and earlier MtLPMO9B inactivation (6 h) was observed. To explain these results, we hypothesized that the delivery of AA16-produced H2O2to the MtLPMO9s is facilitated by protein-protein interaction. Our findings provide new insights into the functions of copper-dependent enzymes and contribute to a further understanding of the interplay of oxidative enzymes within fungal systems to degrade lignocellulose.
- Carbohydrate-Active enZyme
- copper-dependent oxidoreductase
- fungal auxiliary activity family
- hydrogen peroxide
- lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase
- protein structure