A xylenol orange-based screening assay for the substrate specificity of flavin-dependent para-phenol oxidases

Tom A. Ewing, Aster Van Noord, Caroline E. Paul, Willem J.H. Van Berkel*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Vanillyl alcohol oxidase (VAO) and eugenol oxidase (EUGO) are flavin-dependent enzymes that catalyse the oxidation of para-substituted phenols. This makes them potentially interesting biocatalysts for the conversion of lignin-derived aromatic monomers to value-added compounds. To facilitate their biocatalytic exploitation, it is important to develop methods by which variants of the enzymes can be rapidly screened for increased activity towards substrates of interest. Here, we present the development of a screening assay for the substrate specificity of para-phenol oxidases based on the detection of hydrogen peroxide using the ferric-xylenol orange complex method. The assay was used to screen the activity of VAO and EUGO towards a set of twenty-four potential substrates. This led to the identification of 4-cyclopentylphenol as a new substrate of VAO and EUGO and 4-cyclohexylphenol as a new substrate of VAO. Screening of a small library of VAO and EUGO active-site variants for alterations in their substrate specificity led to the identification of a VAO variant (T457Q) with increased activity towards vanillyl alcohol (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl alcohol) and a EUGO variant (V436I) with increased activity towards chavicol (4-allylphenol) and 4-cyclopentylphenol. This assay provides a quick and efficient method to screen the substrate specificity of para-phenol oxidases, facilitating the enzyme engineering of known para-phenol oxidases and the evaluation of the substrate specificity of novel para-phenol oxidases.
Original languageEnglish
Article number164
JournalMolecules
Volume23
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Fingerprint

vanillyl-alcohol oxidase
Monophenol Monooxygenase
oxidase
Eugenol
Substrate Specificity
phenols
Assays
Screening
screening
Oxidoreductases
Substrates
alcohols
Enzymes
Lignin
Phenols
enzymes
Hydrogen Peroxide
Libraries
xylenol orange
4,6-dinitro-o-cresol

Keywords

  • Enzyme kinetics
  • Flavoprotein
  • Oxidase
  • Screening assay
  • Substrate specificity

Cite this

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title = "A xylenol orange-based screening assay for the substrate specificity of flavin-dependent para-phenol oxidases",
abstract = "Vanillyl alcohol oxidase (VAO) and eugenol oxidase (EUGO) are flavin-dependent enzymes that catalyse the oxidation of para-substituted phenols. This makes them potentially interesting biocatalysts for the conversion of lignin-derived aromatic monomers to value-added compounds. To facilitate their biocatalytic exploitation, it is important to develop methods by which variants of the enzymes can be rapidly screened for increased activity towards substrates of interest. Here, we present the development of a screening assay for the substrate specificity of para-phenol oxidases based on the detection of hydrogen peroxide using the ferric-xylenol orange complex method. The assay was used to screen the activity of VAO and EUGO towards a set of twenty-four potential substrates. This led to the identification of 4-cyclopentylphenol as a new substrate of VAO and EUGO and 4-cyclohexylphenol as a new substrate of VAO. Screening of a small library of VAO and EUGO active-site variants for alterations in their substrate specificity led to the identification of a VAO variant (T457Q) with increased activity towards vanillyl alcohol (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl alcohol) and a EUGO variant (V436I) with increased activity towards chavicol (4-allylphenol) and 4-cyclopentylphenol. This assay provides a quick and efficient method to screen the substrate specificity of para-phenol oxidases, facilitating the enzyme engineering of known para-phenol oxidases and the evaluation of the substrate specificity of novel para-phenol oxidases.",
keywords = "Enzyme kinetics, Flavoprotein, Oxidase, Screening assay, Substrate specificity",
author = "Ewing, {Tom A.} and {Van Noord}, Aster and Paul, {Caroline E.} and {Van Berkel}, {Willem J.H.}",
year = "2018",
doi = "10.3390/molecules23010164",
language = "English",
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journal = "Molecules",
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A xylenol orange-based screening assay for the substrate specificity of flavin-dependent para-phenol oxidases. / Ewing, Tom A.; Van Noord, Aster; Paul, Caroline E.; Van Berkel, Willem J.H.

In: Molecules, Vol. 23, No. 1, 164, 2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - A xylenol orange-based screening assay for the substrate specificity of flavin-dependent para-phenol oxidases

AU - Ewing, Tom A.

AU - Van Noord, Aster

AU - Paul, Caroline E.

AU - Van Berkel, Willem J.H.

PY - 2018

Y1 - 2018

N2 - Vanillyl alcohol oxidase (VAO) and eugenol oxidase (EUGO) are flavin-dependent enzymes that catalyse the oxidation of para-substituted phenols. This makes them potentially interesting biocatalysts for the conversion of lignin-derived aromatic monomers to value-added compounds. To facilitate their biocatalytic exploitation, it is important to develop methods by which variants of the enzymes can be rapidly screened for increased activity towards substrates of interest. Here, we present the development of a screening assay for the substrate specificity of para-phenol oxidases based on the detection of hydrogen peroxide using the ferric-xylenol orange complex method. The assay was used to screen the activity of VAO and EUGO towards a set of twenty-four potential substrates. This led to the identification of 4-cyclopentylphenol as a new substrate of VAO and EUGO and 4-cyclohexylphenol as a new substrate of VAO. Screening of a small library of VAO and EUGO active-site variants for alterations in their substrate specificity led to the identification of a VAO variant (T457Q) with increased activity towards vanillyl alcohol (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl alcohol) and a EUGO variant (V436I) with increased activity towards chavicol (4-allylphenol) and 4-cyclopentylphenol. This assay provides a quick and efficient method to screen the substrate specificity of para-phenol oxidases, facilitating the enzyme engineering of known para-phenol oxidases and the evaluation of the substrate specificity of novel para-phenol oxidases.

AB - Vanillyl alcohol oxidase (VAO) and eugenol oxidase (EUGO) are flavin-dependent enzymes that catalyse the oxidation of para-substituted phenols. This makes them potentially interesting biocatalysts for the conversion of lignin-derived aromatic monomers to value-added compounds. To facilitate their biocatalytic exploitation, it is important to develop methods by which variants of the enzymes can be rapidly screened for increased activity towards substrates of interest. Here, we present the development of a screening assay for the substrate specificity of para-phenol oxidases based on the detection of hydrogen peroxide using the ferric-xylenol orange complex method. The assay was used to screen the activity of VAO and EUGO towards a set of twenty-four potential substrates. This led to the identification of 4-cyclopentylphenol as a new substrate of VAO and EUGO and 4-cyclohexylphenol as a new substrate of VAO. Screening of a small library of VAO and EUGO active-site variants for alterations in their substrate specificity led to the identification of a VAO variant (T457Q) with increased activity towards vanillyl alcohol (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl alcohol) and a EUGO variant (V436I) with increased activity towards chavicol (4-allylphenol) and 4-cyclopentylphenol. This assay provides a quick and efficient method to screen the substrate specificity of para-phenol oxidases, facilitating the enzyme engineering of known para-phenol oxidases and the evaluation of the substrate specificity of novel para-phenol oxidases.

KW - Enzyme kinetics

KW - Flavoprotein

KW - Oxidase

KW - Screening assay

KW - Substrate specificity

U2 - 10.3390/molecules23010164

DO - 10.3390/molecules23010164

M3 - Article

VL - 23

JO - Molecules

JF - Molecules

SN - 1420-3049

IS - 1

M1 - 164

ER -