A tale of gastric layering and sieving: Gastric emptying of a liquid meal with water blended in or consumed separately

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Abstract

Background: The process of gastric emptying determines how fast gastric content is delivered to the small intestine. It has been shown that solids empty slower than liquids and that a blended soup empties slower than the same soup as broth and chunks, due to the liquid fraction emptying more quickly. This process of 'gastric sieving' has not been investigated for liquid foods. Objective: To determine whether gastric sieving of water can also occur for liquid foods. Method: Two groups of men participated in a parallel design (n =15, age 22.6±2.4y, BMI 22.6±1.8kg/m2, and n =19, age 22.2±2.5y, BMI 21.8±1.5kg/m2) and consumed an isocaloric shake (2093kJ, CARBOHYDRATES: 71g, FAT: 18g, PROTEIN: 34g), either in a 500-mL version (MIXED) or as a 150-mL shake followed by 350mL water (SEPARATE). Participants provided appetite ratings and were scanned using MRI to determine gastric emptying rate and volume at three time-points within 35min post ingestion. Results: Gastric emptying the percentage emptied in 35. min was significantly smaller for MIXED (29. ±. 19%) than for SEPARATE (57. ±. 11%, p <. 0.001). Conclusion: In the present study we show that gastric sieving can occur for liquid foods; water is able to drain from the stomach while a layer of nutrient rich liquid is retained. In indirect gastric emptying measurements, the behavior of labelling agents may be affected by the layering and confound emptying measurements.
LanguageEnglish
Pages26-30
JournalPhysiology and Behavior
Volume176
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017

Fingerprint

Gastric Emptying
Meals
Stomach
Food
Water
Gastrointestinal Contents
Appetite
Small Intestine
Eating
Liquid
Meal
Layering
Sieving

Keywords

  • Gastric emptying
  • Liquid meal
  • MRI
  • Water

Cite this

@article{449e1e417b17490f909d3b57114d79e7,
title = "A tale of gastric layering and sieving: Gastric emptying of a liquid meal with water blended in or consumed separately",
abstract = "Background: The process of gastric emptying determines how fast gastric content is delivered to the small intestine. It has been shown that solids empty slower than liquids and that a blended soup empties slower than the same soup as broth and chunks, due to the liquid fraction emptying more quickly. This process of 'gastric sieving' has not been investigated for liquid foods. Objective: To determine whether gastric sieving of water can also occur for liquid foods. Method: Two groups of men participated in a parallel design (n =15, age 22.6±2.4y, BMI 22.6±1.8kg/m2, and n =19, age 22.2±2.5y, BMI 21.8±1.5kg/m2) and consumed an isocaloric shake (2093kJ, CARBOHYDRATES: 71g, FAT: 18g, PROTEIN: 34g), either in a 500-mL version (MIXED) or as a 150-mL shake followed by 350mL water (SEPARATE). Participants provided appetite ratings and were scanned using MRI to determine gastric emptying rate and volume at three time-points within 35min post ingestion. Results: Gastric emptying the percentage emptied in 35. min was significantly smaller for MIXED (29. ±. 19{\%}) than for SEPARATE (57. ±. 11{\%}, p <. 0.001). Conclusion: In the present study we show that gastric sieving can occur for liquid foods; water is able to drain from the stomach while a layer of nutrient rich liquid is retained. In indirect gastric emptying measurements, the behavior of labelling agents may be affected by the layering and confound emptying measurements.",
keywords = "Gastric emptying, Liquid meal, MRI, Water",
author = "Guido Camps and Monica Mars and {de Graaf}, Kees and Smeets, {Paul A.M.}",
year = "2017",
doi = "10.1016/j.physbeh.2017.03.029",
language = "English",
volume = "176",
pages = "26--30",
journal = "Physiology and Behavior",
issn = "0031-9384",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - A tale of gastric layering and sieving

T2 - Physiology and Behavior

AU - Camps, Guido

AU - Mars, Monica

AU - de Graaf, Kees

AU - Smeets, Paul A.M.

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - Background: The process of gastric emptying determines how fast gastric content is delivered to the small intestine. It has been shown that solids empty slower than liquids and that a blended soup empties slower than the same soup as broth and chunks, due to the liquid fraction emptying more quickly. This process of 'gastric sieving' has not been investigated for liquid foods. Objective: To determine whether gastric sieving of water can also occur for liquid foods. Method: Two groups of men participated in a parallel design (n =15, age 22.6±2.4y, BMI 22.6±1.8kg/m2, and n =19, age 22.2±2.5y, BMI 21.8±1.5kg/m2) and consumed an isocaloric shake (2093kJ, CARBOHYDRATES: 71g, FAT: 18g, PROTEIN: 34g), either in a 500-mL version (MIXED) or as a 150-mL shake followed by 350mL water (SEPARATE). Participants provided appetite ratings and were scanned using MRI to determine gastric emptying rate and volume at three time-points within 35min post ingestion. Results: Gastric emptying the percentage emptied in 35. min was significantly smaller for MIXED (29. ±. 19%) than for SEPARATE (57. ±. 11%, p <. 0.001). Conclusion: In the present study we show that gastric sieving can occur for liquid foods; water is able to drain from the stomach while a layer of nutrient rich liquid is retained. In indirect gastric emptying measurements, the behavior of labelling agents may be affected by the layering and confound emptying measurements.

AB - Background: The process of gastric emptying determines how fast gastric content is delivered to the small intestine. It has been shown that solids empty slower than liquids and that a blended soup empties slower than the same soup as broth and chunks, due to the liquid fraction emptying more quickly. This process of 'gastric sieving' has not been investigated for liquid foods. Objective: To determine whether gastric sieving of water can also occur for liquid foods. Method: Two groups of men participated in a parallel design (n =15, age 22.6±2.4y, BMI 22.6±1.8kg/m2, and n =19, age 22.2±2.5y, BMI 21.8±1.5kg/m2) and consumed an isocaloric shake (2093kJ, CARBOHYDRATES: 71g, FAT: 18g, PROTEIN: 34g), either in a 500-mL version (MIXED) or as a 150-mL shake followed by 350mL water (SEPARATE). Participants provided appetite ratings and were scanned using MRI to determine gastric emptying rate and volume at three time-points within 35min post ingestion. Results: Gastric emptying the percentage emptied in 35. min was significantly smaller for MIXED (29. ±. 19%) than for SEPARATE (57. ±. 11%, p <. 0.001). Conclusion: In the present study we show that gastric sieving can occur for liquid foods; water is able to drain from the stomach while a layer of nutrient rich liquid is retained. In indirect gastric emptying measurements, the behavior of labelling agents may be affected by the layering and confound emptying measurements.

KW - Gastric emptying

KW - Liquid meal

KW - MRI

KW - Water

U2 - 10.1016/j.physbeh.2017.03.029

DO - 10.1016/j.physbeh.2017.03.029

M3 - Article

VL - 176

SP - 26

EP - 30

JO - Physiology and Behavior

JF - Physiology and Behavior

SN - 0031-9384

ER -