A strategy is proposed for the Identification and quantification of sources of variation in a manufacturing process. The strategy involves six steps: identification and selection of factors, model selection, design of the experiments, performing the experiments, estimation of sources of variation, and finally, interpretation of the results. This strategy helps in finding those factors that contribute mostly to the total variation apparent in analysis results due to the production process itself, sampling, and analysis of samples. The strategy is then applied to a case study in which sources of variation in steel analysis are identified and quantified. The study develops mixed (random and fixed) effect models for the three phases of steel manufacturing - stirring, tundish, and mold. The models show that differences between spectrometers can have an important influence on the total variation apparent in the final analysis results.
Jellema, R. H., Louwerse, D. J., Smilde, A. K., Gerritsen, M. J. P., Guldemond, D., van der Voet, H., & Vereijken, P. F. G. (2003). A systematic quantification of the sources of variation of process analytical measurements in the steel industry. Quality Engineering, 15(3), 391-402. https://doi.org/10.1081/QEN-120018037