To detect Bovine Virus Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV)-specific antibodies in cattle serum, plasma and bulk milk, a simple, reliable and rapid blocking ELISA ("Ceditest") has been developed using two monoclonal antibodies ("WB112" and "WB103") directed to different highly conserved epitopes on the non-structural peptide NS3 of pestiviruses. The test can be performed at high reproducibility using undiluted samples. In testing 1000 field serum samples, the ELISA showed a specificity and a sensitivity relative to the virus neutralization test of 99% and 98%, respectively. The blocking ELISA is able to detect specific antibodies in serum obtained 12 days after an acute infection and in serum of vaccinated and challenged animals. A frequency distribution diagram, obtained by testing almost 1800 random Dutch field serum samples, showed a clear separation between a negative population (maximum frequency of the % inhibition at −5%) and a positive population (maximum frequency of the % inhibition at 95%). Based on these data, the prevalence of seropositive animals was 65% (95% confidence interval: 63%–67%). By exchanging plasma- and bulk milk samples between two laboratories (The Netherlands and Denmark), a good overall agreement was found between results obtained with the Ceditest and those obtained with the Danish blocking ELISA as used in the Danish BVDV eradication programme. The results indicate that BVDV infections can reliably be diagnosed by the Ceditest ELISA and that the test is suitable for use in large scale screening and eradication programmes.
Kramps, J. A., van Maanen, C., van de Wetering, G., Stienstra, G., Quak, S., Brinkhof, J., ... Nylin, B. (1999). A simple, rapid and reliable enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) specific antibodies in cattle serum, plasma and bulk milk. Veterinary Microbiology, 64(2-3), 135-144. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1135(98)00265-X