A simple mathematical model of the bovine estrous cycle: Follicle development and endocrine interactions

H.M.T. Boer, C. Stötzel, S. Röblitz, P. Deuflhard, R.F. Veerkamp, H. Woelders

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Bovine fertility is the subject of extensive research in animal sciences, especially because fertility of dairy cows has declined during the last decades. The regulation of estrus is controlled by the complex interplay of various organs and hormones. Mathematical modeling of the bovine estrous cycle could help in understanding the dynamics of this complex biological system. In this paper we present a mechanistic mathematical model of the bovine estrous cycle that includes the processes of follicle and corpus luteum development and the key hormones that interact to control these processes. The model generates successive estrous cycles of 21 days, with three waves of follicle growth per cycle. The model contains 12 differential equations and 54 parameters. Focus in this paper is on development of the model, but also some simulation results are presented, showing that a set of equations and parameters is obtained that describes the system consistent with empirical knowledge. Even though the majority of the mechanisms that are included in the model are based on relations that in the literature have only been described qualitatively (i.e. stimulation and inhibition), the output of the model is surprisingly well in line with empirical data. This model of the bovine estrous cycle could be used as a basis for more elaborate models with the ability to study effects of external manipulations and genetic differences.
LanguageEnglish
Pages20-31
JournalJournal of Theoretical Biology
Volume278
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011

Fingerprint

Estrous Cycle
estrous cycle
Theoretical Models
mathematical models
Mathematical Model
Mathematical models
Cycle
cattle
Interaction
Fertility
Hormones
Corpus Luteum
Estrus
Model
hormones
Dairies
mechanistic models
animal science
process control
Biological systems

Keywords

  • plasma progesterone levels
  • chemical-reaction systems
  • suckled beef-cows
  • dairy-cows
  • stimulating-hormone
  • peripheral plasma
  • menstrual-cycle
  • dominant follicles
  • luteolytic signal
  • ovarian-follicles

Cite this

@article{6184824276a9466fbc93b086522ce63b,
title = "A simple mathematical model of the bovine estrous cycle: Follicle development and endocrine interactions",
abstract = "Bovine fertility is the subject of extensive research in animal sciences, especially because fertility of dairy cows has declined during the last decades. The regulation of estrus is controlled by the complex interplay of various organs and hormones. Mathematical modeling of the bovine estrous cycle could help in understanding the dynamics of this complex biological system. In this paper we present a mechanistic mathematical model of the bovine estrous cycle that includes the processes of follicle and corpus luteum development and the key hormones that interact to control these processes. The model generates successive estrous cycles of 21 days, with three waves of follicle growth per cycle. The model contains 12 differential equations and 54 parameters. Focus in this paper is on development of the model, but also some simulation results are presented, showing that a set of equations and parameters is obtained that describes the system consistent with empirical knowledge. Even though the majority of the mechanisms that are included in the model are based on relations that in the literature have only been described qualitatively (i.e. stimulation and inhibition), the output of the model is surprisingly well in line with empirical data. This model of the bovine estrous cycle could be used as a basis for more elaborate models with the ability to study effects of external manipulations and genetic differences.",
keywords = "plasma progesterone levels, chemical-reaction systems, suckled beef-cows, dairy-cows, stimulating-hormone, peripheral plasma, menstrual-cycle, dominant follicles, luteolytic signal, ovarian-follicles",
author = "H.M.T. Boer and C. St{\"o}tzel and S. R{\"o}blitz and P. Deuflhard and R.F. Veerkamp and H. Woelders",
year = "2011",
doi = "10.1016/j.jtbi.2011.02.021",
language = "English",
volume = "278",
pages = "20--31",
journal = "Journal of Theoretical Biology",
issn = "0022-5193",
publisher = "Elsevier",
number = "1",

}

A simple mathematical model of the bovine estrous cycle: Follicle development and endocrine interactions. / Boer, H.M.T.; Stötzel, C.; Röblitz, S.; Deuflhard, P.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Woelders, H.

In: Journal of Theoretical Biology, Vol. 278, No. 1, 2011, p. 20-31.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - A simple mathematical model of the bovine estrous cycle: Follicle development and endocrine interactions

AU - Boer, H.M.T.

AU - Stötzel, C.

AU - Röblitz, S.

AU - Deuflhard, P.

AU - Veerkamp, R.F.

AU - Woelders, H.

PY - 2011

Y1 - 2011

N2 - Bovine fertility is the subject of extensive research in animal sciences, especially because fertility of dairy cows has declined during the last decades. The regulation of estrus is controlled by the complex interplay of various organs and hormones. Mathematical modeling of the bovine estrous cycle could help in understanding the dynamics of this complex biological system. In this paper we present a mechanistic mathematical model of the bovine estrous cycle that includes the processes of follicle and corpus luteum development and the key hormones that interact to control these processes. The model generates successive estrous cycles of 21 days, with three waves of follicle growth per cycle. The model contains 12 differential equations and 54 parameters. Focus in this paper is on development of the model, but also some simulation results are presented, showing that a set of equations and parameters is obtained that describes the system consistent with empirical knowledge. Even though the majority of the mechanisms that are included in the model are based on relations that in the literature have only been described qualitatively (i.e. stimulation and inhibition), the output of the model is surprisingly well in line with empirical data. This model of the bovine estrous cycle could be used as a basis for more elaborate models with the ability to study effects of external manipulations and genetic differences.

AB - Bovine fertility is the subject of extensive research in animal sciences, especially because fertility of dairy cows has declined during the last decades. The regulation of estrus is controlled by the complex interplay of various organs and hormones. Mathematical modeling of the bovine estrous cycle could help in understanding the dynamics of this complex biological system. In this paper we present a mechanistic mathematical model of the bovine estrous cycle that includes the processes of follicle and corpus luteum development and the key hormones that interact to control these processes. The model generates successive estrous cycles of 21 days, with three waves of follicle growth per cycle. The model contains 12 differential equations and 54 parameters. Focus in this paper is on development of the model, but also some simulation results are presented, showing that a set of equations and parameters is obtained that describes the system consistent with empirical knowledge. Even though the majority of the mechanisms that are included in the model are based on relations that in the literature have only been described qualitatively (i.e. stimulation and inhibition), the output of the model is surprisingly well in line with empirical data. This model of the bovine estrous cycle could be used as a basis for more elaborate models with the ability to study effects of external manipulations and genetic differences.

KW - plasma progesterone levels

KW - chemical-reaction systems

KW - suckled beef-cows

KW - dairy-cows

KW - stimulating-hormone

KW - peripheral plasma

KW - menstrual-cycle

KW - dominant follicles

KW - luteolytic signal

KW - ovarian-follicles

U2 - 10.1016/j.jtbi.2011.02.021

DO - 10.1016/j.jtbi.2011.02.021

M3 - Article

VL - 278

SP - 20

EP - 31

JO - Journal of Theoretical Biology

T2 - Journal of Theoretical Biology

JF - Journal of Theoretical Biology

SN - 0022-5193

IS - 1

ER -