A second-level diagonal preconditioner for single-step SNPBLUP

Jeremie Vandenplas, Mario P.L. Calus, Herwin Eding, Cornelis Vuik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Background: The preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG) method is an iterative solver of linear equations systems commonly used in animal breeding. However, the PCG method has been shown to encounter convergence issues when applied to single-step single nucleotide polymorphism BLUP (ssSNPBLUP) models. Recently, we proposed a deflated PCG (DPCG) method for solving ssSNPBLUP efficiently. The DPCG method introduces a second-level preconditioner that annihilates the effect of the largest unfavourable eigenvalues of the ssSNPBLUP preconditioned coefficient matrix on the convergence of the iterative solver. While it solves the convergence issues of ssSNPBLUP, the DPCG method requires substantial additional computations, in comparison to the PCG method. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to develop a second-level preconditioner that decreases the largest eigenvalues of the ssSNPBLUP preconditioned coefficient matrix at a lower cost than the DPCG method, in addition to comparing its performance to the (D)PCG methods applied to two different ssSNPBLUP models. Results: Based on the properties of the ssSNPBLUP preconditioned coefficient matrix, we proposed a second-level diagonal preconditioner that decreases the largest eigenvalues of the ssSNPBLUP preconditioned coefficient matrix under some conditions. This proposed second-level preconditioner is easy to implement in current software and does not result in additional computing costs as it can be combined with the commonly used (block-)diagonal preconditioner. Tested on two different datasets and with two different ssSNPBLUP models, the second-level diagonal preconditioner led to a decrease of the largest eigenvalues and the condition number of the preconditioned coefficient matrices. It resulted in an improvement of the convergence pattern of the iterative solver. For the largest dataset, the convergence of the PCG method with the proposed second-level diagonal preconditioner was slower than the DPCG method, but it performed better than the DPCG method in terms of total computing time. Conclusions: The proposed second-level diagonal preconditioner can improve the convergence of the (D)PCG methods applied to two ssSNPBLUP models. Based on our results, the PCG method combined with the proposed second-level diagonal preconditioner seems to be more efficient than the DPCG method in solving ssSNPBLUP. However, the optimal combination of ssSNPBLUP and solver will most likely be situation-dependent.

LanguageEnglish
Article number30
JournalGenetics Selection Evolution
Volume51
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 25 Jun 2019

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single nucleotide polymorphism
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
polymorphism
eigenvalue
methodology
matrix
method
Costs and Cost Analysis
animal breeding
cost
Breeding
Software
breeding
software
animal

Cite this

@article{75f770cff3b8419fbac05af10b88bf6a,
title = "A second-level diagonal preconditioner for single-step SNPBLUP",
abstract = "Background: The preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG) method is an iterative solver of linear equations systems commonly used in animal breeding. However, the PCG method has been shown to encounter convergence issues when applied to single-step single nucleotide polymorphism BLUP (ssSNPBLUP) models. Recently, we proposed a deflated PCG (DPCG) method for solving ssSNPBLUP efficiently. The DPCG method introduces a second-level preconditioner that annihilates the effect of the largest unfavourable eigenvalues of the ssSNPBLUP preconditioned coefficient matrix on the convergence of the iterative solver. While it solves the convergence issues of ssSNPBLUP, the DPCG method requires substantial additional computations, in comparison to the PCG method. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to develop a second-level preconditioner that decreases the largest eigenvalues of the ssSNPBLUP preconditioned coefficient matrix at a lower cost than the DPCG method, in addition to comparing its performance to the (D)PCG methods applied to two different ssSNPBLUP models. Results: Based on the properties of the ssSNPBLUP preconditioned coefficient matrix, we proposed a second-level diagonal preconditioner that decreases the largest eigenvalues of the ssSNPBLUP preconditioned coefficient matrix under some conditions. This proposed second-level preconditioner is easy to implement in current software and does not result in additional computing costs as it can be combined with the commonly used (block-)diagonal preconditioner. Tested on two different datasets and with two different ssSNPBLUP models, the second-level diagonal preconditioner led to a decrease of the largest eigenvalues and the condition number of the preconditioned coefficient matrices. It resulted in an improvement of the convergence pattern of the iterative solver. For the largest dataset, the convergence of the PCG method with the proposed second-level diagonal preconditioner was slower than the DPCG method, but it performed better than the DPCG method in terms of total computing time. Conclusions: The proposed second-level diagonal preconditioner can improve the convergence of the (D)PCG methods applied to two ssSNPBLUP models. Based on our results, the PCG method combined with the proposed second-level diagonal preconditioner seems to be more efficient than the DPCG method in solving ssSNPBLUP. However, the optimal combination of ssSNPBLUP and solver will most likely be situation-dependent.",
author = "Jeremie Vandenplas and Calus, {Mario P.L.} and Herwin Eding and Cornelis Vuik",
year = "2019",
month = "6",
day = "25",
doi = "10.1186/s12711-019-0472-8",
language = "English",
volume = "51",
journal = "Genetics, Selection, Evolution",
issn = "0999-193X",
publisher = "Springer Verlag",

}

A second-level diagonal preconditioner for single-step SNPBLUP. / Vandenplas, Jeremie; Calus, Mario P.L.; Eding, Herwin; Vuik, Cornelis.

In: Genetics Selection Evolution, Vol. 51, 30, 25.06.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - A second-level diagonal preconditioner for single-step SNPBLUP

AU - Vandenplas, Jeremie

AU - Calus, Mario P.L.

AU - Eding, Herwin

AU - Vuik, Cornelis

PY - 2019/6/25

Y1 - 2019/6/25

N2 - Background: The preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG) method is an iterative solver of linear equations systems commonly used in animal breeding. However, the PCG method has been shown to encounter convergence issues when applied to single-step single nucleotide polymorphism BLUP (ssSNPBLUP) models. Recently, we proposed a deflated PCG (DPCG) method for solving ssSNPBLUP efficiently. The DPCG method introduces a second-level preconditioner that annihilates the effect of the largest unfavourable eigenvalues of the ssSNPBLUP preconditioned coefficient matrix on the convergence of the iterative solver. While it solves the convergence issues of ssSNPBLUP, the DPCG method requires substantial additional computations, in comparison to the PCG method. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to develop a second-level preconditioner that decreases the largest eigenvalues of the ssSNPBLUP preconditioned coefficient matrix at a lower cost than the DPCG method, in addition to comparing its performance to the (D)PCG methods applied to two different ssSNPBLUP models. Results: Based on the properties of the ssSNPBLUP preconditioned coefficient matrix, we proposed a second-level diagonal preconditioner that decreases the largest eigenvalues of the ssSNPBLUP preconditioned coefficient matrix under some conditions. This proposed second-level preconditioner is easy to implement in current software and does not result in additional computing costs as it can be combined with the commonly used (block-)diagonal preconditioner. Tested on two different datasets and with two different ssSNPBLUP models, the second-level diagonal preconditioner led to a decrease of the largest eigenvalues and the condition number of the preconditioned coefficient matrices. It resulted in an improvement of the convergence pattern of the iterative solver. For the largest dataset, the convergence of the PCG method with the proposed second-level diagonal preconditioner was slower than the DPCG method, but it performed better than the DPCG method in terms of total computing time. Conclusions: The proposed second-level diagonal preconditioner can improve the convergence of the (D)PCG methods applied to two ssSNPBLUP models. Based on our results, the PCG method combined with the proposed second-level diagonal preconditioner seems to be more efficient than the DPCG method in solving ssSNPBLUP. However, the optimal combination of ssSNPBLUP and solver will most likely be situation-dependent.

AB - Background: The preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG) method is an iterative solver of linear equations systems commonly used in animal breeding. However, the PCG method has been shown to encounter convergence issues when applied to single-step single nucleotide polymorphism BLUP (ssSNPBLUP) models. Recently, we proposed a deflated PCG (DPCG) method for solving ssSNPBLUP efficiently. The DPCG method introduces a second-level preconditioner that annihilates the effect of the largest unfavourable eigenvalues of the ssSNPBLUP preconditioned coefficient matrix on the convergence of the iterative solver. While it solves the convergence issues of ssSNPBLUP, the DPCG method requires substantial additional computations, in comparison to the PCG method. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to develop a second-level preconditioner that decreases the largest eigenvalues of the ssSNPBLUP preconditioned coefficient matrix at a lower cost than the DPCG method, in addition to comparing its performance to the (D)PCG methods applied to two different ssSNPBLUP models. Results: Based on the properties of the ssSNPBLUP preconditioned coefficient matrix, we proposed a second-level diagonal preconditioner that decreases the largest eigenvalues of the ssSNPBLUP preconditioned coefficient matrix under some conditions. This proposed second-level preconditioner is easy to implement in current software and does not result in additional computing costs as it can be combined with the commonly used (block-)diagonal preconditioner. Tested on two different datasets and with two different ssSNPBLUP models, the second-level diagonal preconditioner led to a decrease of the largest eigenvalues and the condition number of the preconditioned coefficient matrices. It resulted in an improvement of the convergence pattern of the iterative solver. For the largest dataset, the convergence of the PCG method with the proposed second-level diagonal preconditioner was slower than the DPCG method, but it performed better than the DPCG method in terms of total computing time. Conclusions: The proposed second-level diagonal preconditioner can improve the convergence of the (D)PCG methods applied to two ssSNPBLUP models. Based on our results, the PCG method combined with the proposed second-level diagonal preconditioner seems to be more efficient than the DPCG method in solving ssSNPBLUP. However, the optimal combination of ssSNPBLUP and solver will most likely be situation-dependent.

U2 - 10.1186/s12711-019-0472-8

DO - 10.1186/s12711-019-0472-8

M3 - Article

VL - 51

JO - Genetics, Selection, Evolution

T2 - Genetics, Selection, Evolution

JF - Genetics, Selection, Evolution

SN - 0999-193X

M1 - 30

ER -