A roadmap to embryo identity in plants

T.M. Radoeva, D. Weijers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

46 Citations (Scopus)


Although plant embryogenesis is usually studied in the context of seed development, there are many alternative roads to embryo initiation. These include somatic embryogenesis in tissue culture and microspore embryogenesis, both widely used in breeding and crop propagation, but also include other modes of ectopic embryo initiation. In the past decades several genes, mostly transcription factors, were identified that can induce embryogenesis in somatic cells. Because the genetic networks in which such regulators operate to promote embryogenesis are largely unknown, a key question is how their activity relates to zygotic and alternative embryo initiation. We describe here the many roads to plant embryo initiation and discuss a framework for defining the developmental roles and mechanisms of plant embryogenesis regulators.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)709-716
JournalTrends in Plant Science
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2014


  • microspore-derived embryos
  • somatic embryogenesis
  • arabidopsis-thaliana
  • pattern-formation
  • transcription factor
  • leafy cotyledon1
  • seed development
  • gene-expression
  • wuschel gene
  • cell


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