A review of mixing, design and loading conditions in household anaerobic digesters

A.O. Jegede*, G. Zeeman, H. Bruning

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

26 Citations (Scopus)


Household digesters are anaerobic reactors applied mostly in rural areas of developing countries with tropical climate. The Chinese dome digester is the most popular household digester type in Asia and Africa, and has become the basis for contemporary developments in the household digester sector around the world. Household digesters are operated at ambient temperatures and have no internal mixing device, making them simple to operate. In the absence of internal mixing mechanism, the Chinese dome digester is mixed via pressure variation during gas production, gas use and feeding. Since mixing is limited in household digesters, they are operated at low organic loading rates and long hydraulic retention time when compared with forced mixed reactors. This review analyses and presents the various types of domestic biogas plants and operating parameters, with emphasis on mixing. Experimental results of household reactors, forced mixed reactors with different mixing modes and intensities were also reviewed and compared.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2117-2153
JournalCritical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology
Issue number22
Publication statusPublished - 5 Jul 2019


  • Chinese dome digester (CDD)
  • household digesters
  • hydraulic retention time (HRT)
  • mixing


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