Many developing countries in Asia have a comparative advantage in the production of horticultural commodities. Drawing from the widely diverging experiences of six countries, it is concluded that government policies significantly influence horticultural export performance. In order to meet strict consumers' specifications in importing countries, maximum cooperation is needed between the private export sector, the government, the research community and growers. Increased horticultural production in temperate highlands has led to serious land degradation and production of negative externalities. However, the trade-off between profitability and sustainability as well as the desirability and from of government intervention remain controversial issues.