A randomized crossover trial assessing time of day snack consumption and resulting postprandial glycemic response in a real-life setting among healthy adults

Ruth Timmer, Laurens Bogaardt, Walter J. Brummelhuis, Conny T. van Oostrom, Linda W.M. van Kerkhof, Albert Wong, Harold W. de Valk, Marga C. Ocké, Tessa van der Maaden, Martijn E.T. Dollé*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

The postprandial glycemic response is an important metabolic health factor, which, from laboratory studies, is known to change from low to high over the course of the day, and from which negative health outcomes have been linked to nightly eating. We applied interstitial continuous glucose monitoring to examine the glycemic response to a standardized carbohydrate-rich snack (198 kcal) across the day in a real-life setting. Twenty-four healthy participants (12 men, 12 women, 27–61 y old) consumed the snack nine times during 6 d in a crossover design, altering the time of consumption between morning, afternoon and evening. The snack was consumed in the participant’s own environment with a preceding fast of at least 2.5 h between their customary main meals and practices. Linear mixed models were used with fixed effect of timing, and participant as random effect, to assess incremental area under the curve, peak value and time-to-peak of the glycemic response. Overall, the highest glycemic excursions were observed in the morning, while a more dampened but prolonged response was observed in the evening. These findings do not concur with previously published laboratory studies. This implies that results obtained under controlled experimental conditions in laboratories cannot be generalized directly to predict chrononutritional effects on the glycemic response in healthy individuals and their daily routines.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1329-1339
JournalChronobiology International
Volume39
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 24 Aug 2022

Keywords

  • chrononutrition
  • continuous glucose monitoring
  • Postprandial glycemic response
  • real-life setting

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