Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides can induce antihypertensive effects after oral administration. By means of an ACE inhibitory peptide database, containing about 500 reported sequences and their IC50 values, the different proteins in pea and whey were quantitatively evaluated as precursors for ACE inhibitory peptides. This analysis was combined with experimental data from the evolution in ACE inhibitory activity and protein degradation during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Pea proteins produced similar in silico scores and were degraded early in the in vitro digestion. High ACE inhibitory activity was observed after the simulated stomach phase and augmented slightly in the simulated small intestine phase. The major whey protein beta-lactoglobulin obtained the highest in silico scores, which corresponded with the fact that degradation of this protein in vitro only occurred from the simulated small intestine phase on and resulted in a 10-fold increase in the ACE inhibitory activity. Whey protein obtained total in silico scores of about 124 ml/mg, compared to 46 ml/mg for pea protein, indicating that whey protein would be a richer source of ACE inhibitory peptides than pea protein. Although P-lactoglobulin is only partially digested, a higher ACE inhibitory activity was indeed found in the whey (IC50 = 0.048 mg/ml) compared to the pea digest (IC50 = 0.076 mg/ml). In silico gastrointestinal digestion of the highest scoring proteins in pea and whey, vicilin and albumin PA2, and beta-lactoglobulin, respectively, directly released a number of potent ACE inhibitory peptides. Several other ACE inhibitory sequences resisted in silico digestion by gastrointestinal proteases. Briefly, the quantitative in silico, analysis will facilitate the study of precursor proteins on a large scale and the specific release of bioactive peptides. (C) 2004 Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
- bovine beta-lactoglobulin
- hypertensive rats