As part of an ongoing revision of the genus Monanthotaxis Baill. (Annonaceae), nine new species are described and one variety is reinstated to species rank. Two new species from West Africa (Monanthotaxis aquila P.H.Hoekstra, sp. nov. and Monanthotaxis atewensis P.H.Hoekstra, sp. nov.), four new species from Central Africa (Monanthotaxis couvreurii P.H.Hoekstra, sp. nov., Monanthotaxis latistamina P.H.Hoekstra, sp. nov., Monanthotaxis tripetala P.H.Hoekstra, sp. nov. and Monanthotaxis zenkeri P.H.Hoekstra, sp. nov.), one new species from Tanzania (Monanthotaxis filipes P.H.Hoekstra, sp. nov.), one new species from the area around Maputo (Monanthotaxis maputensis P.H.Hoekstra, sp. nov.), one new species from the Comoro Islands (Monanthotaxis komorensis P.H.Hoekstra, sp. nov.) and Monanthotaxis klainei (Engl.) Verdc. var. angustifolia (Boutique) Verdc. is raised to species level leading to the replacement name Monanthotaxis atopostema P.H.Hoekstra, nom. nov. (not Monanthotaxis angustifolia (Exell) Verdc.). Complete descriptions, comparisons with related species, ecological information and IUCN conservation assessments are given for the new species. Five species were classified as critical endangered, two species as endangered, one as vulnerable and one as least concern, warranting the need of further collecting and studying those species.