A mycotoxin-dedicated total diet study in the Netherlands in 2013: Part I - Design

R.C. Sprong, L. de Wit-Bos, M.J. Zeilmaker, M. Alewijn, J.J.M. Castenmiller, M.J.B. Mengelers

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6 Citations (Scopus)


A mycotoxin-dedicated total diet study (mTDS) allowing assessment of occurrence and dietary exposure to these substances was developed and carried out in the Netherlands in 2013. First, literature was searched to establish the occurrence profile of mycotoxins. Next, foods as consumed according to the Dutch National Food Consumption Surveys (DNFCS) for young children and persons aged 7-69 years, categorised in several food categories, were ranked according to their summed consumption. Subsequently, foods with the highest consumptions were included to cover >85% of the consumption of a particular food category. In some cases, foods other than those contributing to the upper 85% consumption within a food category were included based on their expected high mycotoxin contamination. In some other cases, foods not contributing to mycotoxin exposure were excluded. This resulted in 130 foods to be included in this mTDS. Since a sample size of 12 was established per food, 1,560 food items were purchased for the population aged 7-69 years. Fifty seven additional food items were purchased to take into account the different consumption profile of young children. The 1,617 food items were prepared as consumed based on information available in the food consumption surveys. The prepared food items were combined according to the different consumption forms of the 130 selected foods (e.g. fresh, canned or frozen). This resulted in 213 subsamples, which were proportionally to their consumption further pooled into 88 composite samples. These composite samples covered 87 and 88% of the amount foods consumed by young children and the population aged 7-69 years, respectively. This design allows analysis of mycotoxin occurrence and the subsequent exposure assessment using aggregated food categories reflected by the 88 composite samples, as well as a more refined approach by analysing 213 subsamples.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)73-87
JournalWorld Mycotoxin Journal
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2016


  • A mycotoxin-dedicated total diet study in the netherlands in 2013: part i - design
  • Composite sample
  • Exposure assessment
  • Occurrence

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