A mycotoxin-dedicated total diet study in the Netherlands in 2013: Part II – occurrence

P. López Sánchez, T.C. de Rijk, R.C. Sprong, M.J.B. Mengelers, J.J.M. Castenmiller, M. Alewijn

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26 Citations (Scopus)


The occurrence of 59 natural toxins was determined in 88 composite food and drink samples of a mycotoxin-dedicated total diet study performed in the Netherlands in 2013. Composite food samples were prepared by pooling foods from a food category (as consumed, e.g. peeled, cooked, etc.) according to their consumption by population groups in the Netherlands. A multi-targeted method based on QuEChERs extraction, dilute and shoot and analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was applied to the 88 composite samples. Dedicated methods with lower detection limits for patulin, aflatoxins and trichothecenes were also applied to specific food types. Thirty samples (34%) were positive for one or more mycotoxins. Patulin, aflatoxin M1, zearalenone and plant toxins, with the exception of scopolamine in liquorice, were not detected in any of the composite samples. Aflatoxin B1 was only detected, but not at quantifiable levels, in the composites that contained peanuts. Fumonisin B1 was only found at 18 µg/kg in breakfast cereals consumed by the population group of 7-69 years, whereas ochratoxin A occurred at low levels around 1 µg/kg in liquorice, legumes and coffee. Grains and grain-based food composites were positive for ergot alkaloids, enniatins B and B1 and deoxynivalenol (DON). The levels of DON in the positive samples were lower compared to other studies, with the exception of breakfast cereals for infants with a DON concentration of 116 µg/kg. This specific composite sample may have contained an ingredient with a concentration exceeding the maximum legal limit of 200 µg/kg. Alternaria toxins (alternariol and alternariol methyl ether) were detected at levels ranging from 1.0 to 8.9 µg/kg in a number of composite samples, including tomato products, nuts, cereal products, chocolate and wine. Mycophenolic acid and roquefortine C co-occurred in mould-ripened cheese composites, while mycophenolic acid also was found in dried fruit and liquorice composite samples.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)89-108
JournalWorld Mycotoxin Journal
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2016


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