A multiple-standards framework to address externalities resulting from meat production

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This article develops a framework for assessing the implementation of standards in a context of multiple negative externalities resulting from meat production. The framework is applied to the introduction of the New Dutch Retail Standard in the Dutch broiler market, a standard on animal welfare initiated by the private sector with national coverage. The results show that this standard did not lower producer, retailer, and consumer welfare; rather, social welfare increased by approximately 300 million euros. The framework provides a sound scientific basis for an ex ante analysis on the market potential of multiple standards.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)946-959
Number of pages14
JournalApplied Economic Perspectives and Policy
Issue number2
Early online date15 Feb 2021
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2022


  • externalities
  • market effects
  • meat supply chain
  • partial equilibrium model
  • standards


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