A model for risk-based monitoring of contaminants in feed ingredients

Ine van der Fels*, P. Adamse, J. de Jong, R. Hoogenboom, M. de Nijs, P. Bikker

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


A qualitative spreadsheet model has been developed for ranking feed ingredients on the basis of the potential risk of exceeding existing guidance or maximum levels in the EU for a certain contaminant, and the potential consequence of the presence of this contaminant on the health of animals and/or humans. The approach was based on the general concept of risk, being frequency times consequences of presence of the contaminant. Contamination of compound feeds due to presence of the contaminant in feed ingredients was estimated, per animal category, by: annual volumes of feed ingredients used for feed production, stratified per country of origin; the portion of each ingredient in compound feed formulations used for various animal categories; and the potential contamination of an ingredient per country of origin. The consequences of the contamination were accounted for by two consequence factors, both estimated per animal category: one for the potential impact of the contaminant on the health of the target animal, and one for the impact on human health, related to the possible formation of residues in animal derived food products.The use of the model was demonstrated by its application to the presence of dioxins and dl-PCBs in compound feed for farm animals produced in the Netherlands in 2013 and 2014. Model results include the relative contribution, based on relative ranking scores, of each feed ingredient to the chance of exceeding limits and potential consequences on animal and human health. Feed ingredients ranking highest were palm oil, other fats and oils, dried products like bakery products, sunflower expeller/extracted, maize, and fish meal.The model can be used by risk managers in feed industry and by governmental bodies for supporting decision making on the optimal allocation of resources for control of ingredients for compound feed production for presence of contaminants.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)211-218
JournalFood Control
Issue numberpart B
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • Compound feed
  • Contaminants
  • Dioxins
  • Feed ingredients
  • Food/feed safety
  • Risk based monitoring


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