A living income for smallholder commodity farmers and protected forests and biodiversity: how can the private and public sectors contribute? White Paper on sustainable commodity production

Y.R. Waarts (Contributor), Valerie Janssen (Contributor), V.J. Ingram (Contributor), M.A. Slingerland (Contributor), F.C. van Rijn (Contributor), G. Beekman (Contributor), Just Dengerink (Contributor), J.A. van Vliet, E.J.M.M. Arets (Contributor), M. Sassen (Contributor), W.J. Guijt (Contributor), S.M. van Vugt (Contributor)

Research output: Book/ReportReportProfessional

Abstract

Interventions and policies in the cocoa, tea and coffee sectors have failed to ensure that all smallholder commodity farmers earn more than the $1.90 World Bank poverty line or a living income, and they have not halted deforestation. Commodity farming is strongly associated with deforestation, in spite of interventions. For more than 50% of the cocoa and tea farmers in our datasets, household income would need to double in order for them to earn a living income. For those farmers, farming will never be a primary pathway out of poverty.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationWageningen
PublisherWageningen Economic Research
Number of pages26
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2019

Publication series

NameWageningen Economic Research
PublisherWageningen Economic Research
No.2019-122

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  • Projects

    Biodiversity and Food Systems (KB-35-007-001)

    Arets, E.

    1/01/1931/12/20

    Project: EZproject

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