A history of fish immunology and vaccination I. the early days

W.B. van Muiswinkel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)


This historic review describes the people that were involved in studying some aspect of fish immunology and vaccination from as early as 1854. Between 1850 and 1940, most scientists were looking at fish from the angle of comparative anatomy, embryology, physiology, taxonomy and fish diseases. Most publications from this early period are describing the morphology of blood cells and hemopoietic or lymphoid organs. The first publications on specific immune responses and vaccination of fish were found in the period 1935-1938. However, the immune mechanisms behind protective immunization were largely unknown in those days. In the period after 1940, the first researchers can be found devoting their whole career to fish immunology. This paper has been organized largely by individuals and not so much by accomplishments. It is not the intent of this review to evaluate the scientific merit of the work discussed, but to provide the reader with information that was - at least in part - lost to the scientific community. Publications from before 1940 or in languages other than English (e.g. Russian) are usually not found by today's database searches on the Internet.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)397-408
Number of pages12
JournalFish and Shellfish Immunology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2008


  • trout salmo-gairdneri
  • dogfish mustelus canis
  • immune-response
  • immunoglobulin structure
  • oral immunization
  • antibody
  • carp
  • evolution
  • shark
  • homotransplantation

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