A high-fat SFA, MUFA, or n3 PUFA challenge affects the vascular response and initiates an activated state of cellular adherence in lean and obese middle-aged men

D. Esser, S.J. van Dijk, E. Oosterink, M.R. Müller, L.A. Afman

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Abstract

BMI and fatty acid type affect postprandial metabolic TG responses, but whether these factors also affect vascular, inflammatory, and leukocyte adherence responses remains unclear. We therefore compared those postprandial responses between lean and obese men after 3 high-fat challenges differing in fatty acid composition. In a crossover double-blind study, 18 lean (BMI: 18–25 kg/m2) and 18 obese (BMI >29 kg/m2) middle-aged men received 3 isocaloric high-fat milkshakes containing 95 g fat (88% of energy), either high in SFAs (54% of energy/total fat), MUFAs (83% of energy/total fat), or n3 (omega-3) PUFAs (40% of energy/total fat). Hemodynamics, augmentation index (AIX), leukocyte cell surface adhesion markers, and plasma cytokines involved in vascular adherence, coagulation, and inflammation were measured before and after consumption of the milkshakes. In both groups and after all shakes were consumed, AIX decreased; plasma soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM) 1, sICAM3, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM) 1, and interleukin-8 increased; monocyte CD11a, CD11b, and CD621 expression increased; neutrophil CD11a, CD11b, and CD621 expression increased; and lymphocyte CD62l expression increased (P <0.05). Lymphocyte CD11a and CD11b expression decreased in lean participants after consumption of all shakes but did not change in obese participants (P <0.05). Obese participants had a less pronounced decrease in heart rate after the consumption of all shakes (P <0.05). MUFA consumption induced a more pronounced decrease in blood pressure and AIX compared with the other milkshakes in both lean and obese participants (P <0.05). High-fat consumption initiates an activated state of cellular adherence and an atherogenic milieu. This response was independent of fatty acid type consumed or of being lean or obese, despite the clear differences in postprandial TG responses between the groups and different milkshakes. These findings suggest that in addition to increased TGs, other mechanisms are involved in the high-fat consumption–induced activated state of cellular adherence.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)843-851
JournalThe Journal of Nutrition
Volume143
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013

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Keywords

  • triglyceride-rich lipoproteins
  • postprandial lipemia
  • nonfasting triglycerides
  • cardiovascular-disease
  • arterial stiffness
  • oxidative stress
  • healthy-men
  • young men
  • dietary
  • women

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