Flooding negatively affects the growth and even survival of most terrestrial plants. Upon flooding, the excess water quickly decreases the gas exchange between atmosphere and the submerged plant tissues, which leads to oxygen deficiency resulting in a plant cell energy crisis, and eventually plant death. Solanum dulcamara survives flooding by producing aerenchymatous adventitious roots (ARs) from pre-formed primordia on the stem, which replace the original flood-sensitive root system. However, we found that under complete submergence, AR outgrowth was impaired in S. dulcamara. In the present work, we tried to elucidate the mechanisms behind this phenomenon in particular the involvement of the phytohormones auxin, abscisic acid and jasmonic acid. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a negative regulator of AR outgrowth, but surprisingly the ABA content and signaling were decreased to a similar extent under both partial and complete submergence, suggesting that ABA might not be responsible for the difference in AR outgrowth. Auxin, which is necessary for AR outgrowth, was at similar concentrations in either partially or completely submerged primordia, but complete submergence resulted in a decrease of auxin signaling in the primordia. Application of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) to completely submerged plants restored AR outgrowth, implying that auxin response in the rooting tissues of completely submerged plants was reduced. Furthermore, jasmonic acid (JA) concentrations did not differ between partial and complete submergence. To conclude, a disruption in the auxin signaling within S. dulcamara AR primordia may result in the abortion of AR outgrowth under complete submergence.
- Adventitious roots
- Complete submergence