A diagnostic equation for the maximum urban heat island effect of a typical Chinese city: A case study for Xi'an

Xi Zhang, Gert-Jan Steeneveld, Dian Zhou, Chengjiang Duan, Albert A.M. Holtslag

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

To reduce the vulnerability of urban areas facing high temperatures, it is useful to develop methods to obtain the urban heat island (UHI)intensity. However, it is hard to equip all cities with extensive measurement networks and alternative UHI diagnostic methods are needed. Accordingly, in this paper we evaluate and revise the diagnostic equation designed by Theeuwes et al. (2017)and analyze its application for Xi'an (China), based on long-term summer meteorology data. The evaluation of the default diagnostic equation shows that limited accuracy for Xi'an is caused by the sum of morphological parameters being used outside the original range of calibration. Subsequently, we propose an extended equation, which adds the building fraction to express the morphology of additional spatial categories. This new equation is calibrated against a 3-year dataset and independently validated with data from another year. In addition, a class prediction with three spatial categories is proposed, and verified by independent data of 20 stations in Xi'an in 2018, which enables this formula to be applied in more cities. Altogether, the extended diagnostic equation is an effective method to evaluate the daily maximum UHI intensity (UHI max )on neighborhood-scale, which can be generalized for a whole city area and presents internal intensity differences with multi-points.

LanguageEnglish
Pages39-50
JournalBuilding and Environment
Volume158
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2019

Fingerprint

heat island
Thermal effects
heat
diagnostic
meteorology
Meteorology
urban area
vulnerability
Calibration
China
city
effect
Hot Temperature
calibration
evaluation
summer
prediction
method
Temperature

Keywords

  • China
  • Diagnostic equation
  • Neighborhood-scale
  • Urban heat island
  • Urban morphology
  • Xi'an

Cite this

@article{25b5ceb917e546c599060e5aecb0ff8d,
title = "A diagnostic equation for the maximum urban heat island effect of a typical Chinese city: A case study for Xi'an",
abstract = "To reduce the vulnerability of urban areas facing high temperatures, it is useful to develop methods to obtain the urban heat island (UHI)intensity. However, it is hard to equip all cities with extensive measurement networks and alternative UHI diagnostic methods are needed. Accordingly, in this paper we evaluate and revise the diagnostic equation designed by Theeuwes et al. (2017)and analyze its application for Xi'an (China), based on long-term summer meteorology data. The evaluation of the default diagnostic equation shows that limited accuracy for Xi'an is caused by the sum of morphological parameters being used outside the original range of calibration. Subsequently, we propose an extended equation, which adds the building fraction to express the morphology of additional spatial categories. This new equation is calibrated against a 3-year dataset and independently validated with data from another year. In addition, a class prediction with three spatial categories is proposed, and verified by independent data of 20 stations in Xi'an in 2018, which enables this formula to be applied in more cities. Altogether, the extended diagnostic equation is an effective method to evaluate the daily maximum UHI intensity (UHI max )on neighborhood-scale, which can be generalized for a whole city area and presents internal intensity differences with multi-points.",
keywords = "China, Diagnostic equation, Neighborhood-scale, Urban heat island, Urban morphology, Xi'an",
author = "Xi Zhang and Gert-Jan Steeneveld and Dian Zhou and Chengjiang Duan and Holtslag, {Albert A.M.}",
year = "2019",
month = "7",
doi = "10.1016/j.buildenv.2019.05.004",
language = "English",
volume = "158",
pages = "39--50",
journal = "Building and Environment",
issn = "0360-1323",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

A diagnostic equation for the maximum urban heat island effect of a typical Chinese city: A case study for Xi'an. / Zhang, Xi; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan; Zhou, Dian; Duan, Chengjiang; Holtslag, Albert A.M.

In: Building and Environment, Vol. 158, 07.2019, p. 39-50.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - A diagnostic equation for the maximum urban heat island effect of a typical Chinese city: A case study for Xi'an

AU - Zhang, Xi

AU - Steeneveld, Gert-Jan

AU - Zhou, Dian

AU - Duan, Chengjiang

AU - Holtslag, Albert A.M.

PY - 2019/7

Y1 - 2019/7

N2 - To reduce the vulnerability of urban areas facing high temperatures, it is useful to develop methods to obtain the urban heat island (UHI)intensity. However, it is hard to equip all cities with extensive measurement networks and alternative UHI diagnostic methods are needed. Accordingly, in this paper we evaluate and revise the diagnostic equation designed by Theeuwes et al. (2017)and analyze its application for Xi'an (China), based on long-term summer meteorology data. The evaluation of the default diagnostic equation shows that limited accuracy for Xi'an is caused by the sum of morphological parameters being used outside the original range of calibration. Subsequently, we propose an extended equation, which adds the building fraction to express the morphology of additional spatial categories. This new equation is calibrated against a 3-year dataset and independently validated with data from another year. In addition, a class prediction with three spatial categories is proposed, and verified by independent data of 20 stations in Xi'an in 2018, which enables this formula to be applied in more cities. Altogether, the extended diagnostic equation is an effective method to evaluate the daily maximum UHI intensity (UHI max )on neighborhood-scale, which can be generalized for a whole city area and presents internal intensity differences with multi-points.

AB - To reduce the vulnerability of urban areas facing high temperatures, it is useful to develop methods to obtain the urban heat island (UHI)intensity. However, it is hard to equip all cities with extensive measurement networks and alternative UHI diagnostic methods are needed. Accordingly, in this paper we evaluate and revise the diagnostic equation designed by Theeuwes et al. (2017)and analyze its application for Xi'an (China), based on long-term summer meteorology data. The evaluation of the default diagnostic equation shows that limited accuracy for Xi'an is caused by the sum of morphological parameters being used outside the original range of calibration. Subsequently, we propose an extended equation, which adds the building fraction to express the morphology of additional spatial categories. This new equation is calibrated against a 3-year dataset and independently validated with data from another year. In addition, a class prediction with three spatial categories is proposed, and verified by independent data of 20 stations in Xi'an in 2018, which enables this formula to be applied in more cities. Altogether, the extended diagnostic equation is an effective method to evaluate the daily maximum UHI intensity (UHI max )on neighborhood-scale, which can be generalized for a whole city area and presents internal intensity differences with multi-points.

KW - China

KW - Diagnostic equation

KW - Neighborhood-scale

KW - Urban heat island

KW - Urban morphology

KW - Xi'an

U2 - 10.1016/j.buildenv.2019.05.004

DO - 10.1016/j.buildenv.2019.05.004

M3 - Article

VL - 158

SP - 39

EP - 50

JO - Building and Environment

T2 - Building and Environment

JF - Building and Environment

SN - 0360-1323

ER -