A cross sectional study on Dutch layer farms to investigate the prevalence and potential risk factors for different Chlamydia species

Marloes Heijne*, Jeanet A. van der Goot, Helmi Fijten, Joke W. van der Giessen, Eric Kuijt, Catharina B.M. Maassen, Annika van Roon, Ben Wit, Ad P. Koets, Hendrik I.J. Roest

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In poultry several Chlamydia species have been detected, but Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia gallinacea appear to be most prevalent and important. Chlamydia psittaci is a well-known zoonosis and is considered to be a pathogen of poultry. Chlamydia gallinacea has been described more recently. Its avian pathogenicity and zoonotic potential have to be further elucidated. Within the Netherlands no data were available on the presence of Chlamydia on poultry farms. As part of a surveillance programme for zoonotic pathogens in farm animals, we investigated pooled faecal samples from 151 randomly selected layer farms. On a voluntary base, 69 farmers, family members or farm workers from these 151 farms submitted a throat swab. All samples were tested with a generic 23S Chlamydiaceae PCR followed by a species specific PCR for C. avium, C. gallinacea and C. psittaci. C. avium and psittaci DNA was not detected at any of the farms. At 71 farms the positive result could be confirmed as C. gallinacea. Variables significantly associated with the presence of C. gallinacea in a final multivariable model were ‘age of hens,’ ‘use of bedding material’ and ‘the presence of horses.’ The presence of C. gallinacea was associated with neither clinical signs, varying from respiratory symptoms, nasal and ocular discharges to diarrhoea, nor with a higher mortality rate the day before the visit. All throat swabs from farmers, family members or farm workers tested negative for Chlamydia DNA, giving no further indication for possible bird-to-human (or human-to-bird) transmission.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0190774
JournalPLoS ONE
Volume13
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2018

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Chlamydia
cross-sectional studies
Farms
Chlamydophila psittaci
risk factors
Cross-Sectional Studies
Zoonoses
Poultry
farms
poultry
farm labor
throat
Pharynx
Birds
Chlamydiaceae
Respiratory Signs and Symptoms
farmers
Pathogens
Polymerase Chain Reaction
pathogens

Cite this

Heijne, Marloes ; van der Goot, Jeanet A. ; Fijten, Helmi ; van der Giessen, Joke W. ; Kuijt, Eric ; Maassen, Catharina B.M. ; van Roon, Annika ; Wit, Ben ; Koets, Ad P. ; Roest, Hendrik I.J. / A cross sectional study on Dutch layer farms to investigate the prevalence and potential risk factors for different Chlamydia species. In: PLoS ONE. 2018 ; Vol. 13, No. 1.
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title = "A cross sectional study on Dutch layer farms to investigate the prevalence and potential risk factors for different Chlamydia species",
abstract = "In poultry several Chlamydia species have been detected, but Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia gallinacea appear to be most prevalent and important. Chlamydia psittaci is a well-known zoonosis and is considered to be a pathogen of poultry. Chlamydia gallinacea has been described more recently. Its avian pathogenicity and zoonotic potential have to be further elucidated. Within the Netherlands no data were available on the presence of Chlamydia on poultry farms. As part of a surveillance programme for zoonotic pathogens in farm animals, we investigated pooled faecal samples from 151 randomly selected layer farms. On a voluntary base, 69 farmers, family members or farm workers from these 151 farms submitted a throat swab. All samples were tested with a generic 23S Chlamydiaceae PCR followed by a species specific PCR for C. avium, C. gallinacea and C. psittaci. C. avium and psittaci DNA was not detected at any of the farms. At 71 farms the positive result could be confirmed as C. gallinacea. Variables significantly associated with the presence of C. gallinacea in a final multivariable model were ‘age of hens,’ ‘use of bedding material’ and ‘the presence of horses.’ The presence of C. gallinacea was associated with neither clinical signs, varying from respiratory symptoms, nasal and ocular discharges to diarrhoea, nor with a higher mortality rate the day before the visit. All throat swabs from farmers, family members or farm workers tested negative for Chlamydia DNA, giving no further indication for possible bird-to-human (or human-to-bird) transmission.",
author = "Marloes Heijne and {van der Goot}, {Jeanet A.} and Helmi Fijten and {van der Giessen}, {Joke W.} and Eric Kuijt and Maassen, {Catharina B.M.} and {van Roon}, Annika and Ben Wit and Koets, {Ad P.} and Roest, {Hendrik I.J.}",
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A cross sectional study on Dutch layer farms to investigate the prevalence and potential risk factors for different Chlamydia species. / Heijne, Marloes; van der Goot, Jeanet A.; Fijten, Helmi; van der Giessen, Joke W.; Kuijt, Eric; Maassen, Catharina B.M.; van Roon, Annika; Wit, Ben; Koets, Ad P.; Roest, Hendrik I.J.

In: PLoS ONE, Vol. 13, No. 1, e0190774, 01.01.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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AU - Heijne, Marloes

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AU - van der Giessen, Joke W.

AU - Kuijt, Eric

AU - Maassen, Catharina B.M.

AU - van Roon, Annika

AU - Wit, Ben

AU - Koets, Ad P.

AU - Roest, Hendrik I.J.

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AB - In poultry several Chlamydia species have been detected, but Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia gallinacea appear to be most prevalent and important. Chlamydia psittaci is a well-known zoonosis and is considered to be a pathogen of poultry. Chlamydia gallinacea has been described more recently. Its avian pathogenicity and zoonotic potential have to be further elucidated. Within the Netherlands no data were available on the presence of Chlamydia on poultry farms. As part of a surveillance programme for zoonotic pathogens in farm animals, we investigated pooled faecal samples from 151 randomly selected layer farms. On a voluntary base, 69 farmers, family members or farm workers from these 151 farms submitted a throat swab. All samples were tested with a generic 23S Chlamydiaceae PCR followed by a species specific PCR for C. avium, C. gallinacea and C. psittaci. C. avium and psittaci DNA was not detected at any of the farms. At 71 farms the positive result could be confirmed as C. gallinacea. Variables significantly associated with the presence of C. gallinacea in a final multivariable model were ‘age of hens,’ ‘use of bedding material’ and ‘the presence of horses.’ The presence of C. gallinacea was associated with neither clinical signs, varying from respiratory symptoms, nasal and ocular discharges to diarrhoea, nor with a higher mortality rate the day before the visit. All throat swabs from farmers, family members or farm workers tested negative for Chlamydia DNA, giving no further indication for possible bird-to-human (or human-to-bird) transmission.

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