A conserved GH17 glycosyl hydrolase from plant pathogenic Dothideomycetes releases a DAMP causing cell death in tomato

Bilal Ökmen*, Daniel Bachmann, Pierre J.G.M. de Wit

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

To facilitate infection, pathogens deploy a plethora of effectors to suppress basal host immunity induced by exogenous microbe-associated or endogenous damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). In this study, we have characterized family 17 glycosyl hydrolases of the tomato pathogen Cladosporium fulvum (CfGH17) and studied their role in infection. Heterologous expression of CfGH17-1 to 5 by potato virus X in different tomato cultivars showed that CfGH17-1 and CfGH17-5 enzymes induce cell death in Cf-0, Cf-1 and Cf-5 but not in Cf-Ecp3 tomato cultivars or tobacco. Moreover, CfGH17-1 orthologues from other phytopathogens, including Dothistroma septosporum and Mycosphaerella fijiensis, also trigger cell death in tomato. CfGH17-1 and CfGH17-5 are predicted to be β-1,3-glucanases and their enzymatic activity is required for the induction of cell death. CfGH17-1 hydrolyses laminarin, a linear 1,3-β-glucan with 1,6-β linkages. CfGH17-1 expression is down-regulated during the biotrophic phase of infection and up-regulated during the necrotrophic phase. Deletion of CfGH17-1 in C. fulvum did not reduce virulence on tomato, while constitutive expression of CfGH17-1 decreased virulence, suggesting that abundant presence of CfGH17-1 during biotrophic growth may release a DAMP that activates plant defence responses. Under natural conditions CfGH17-1 is suggested to play a role during saprophytic growth when the fungus thrives on dead host tissue, which is in line with its high levels of expression at late stages of infection when host tissues have become necrotic. We suggest that CfGH17-1 releases a DAMP from the host cell wall that is recognized by a yet unknown host plant receptor.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1710-1721
JournalMolecular Plant Pathology
Volume20
Issue number12
Early online date11 Oct 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2019

Fingerprint

Dothideomycetes
glycosidases
Hydrolases
Lycopersicon esculentum
cell death
Cell Death
tomatoes
damage
Passalora fulva
virulence
cultivar
Infection
pathogen
infection
Virulence
Dothistroma
plant defense
Cladosporium
immunity
tobacco

Keywords

  • cell death-inducing
  • Cladosporium fulvum
  • DAMP
  • effectors
  • GH17

Cite this

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title = "A conserved GH17 glycosyl hydrolase from plant pathogenic Dothideomycetes releases a DAMP causing cell death in tomato",
abstract = "To facilitate infection, pathogens deploy a plethora of effectors to suppress basal host immunity induced by exogenous microbe-associated or endogenous damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). In this study, we have characterized family 17 glycosyl hydrolases of the tomato pathogen Cladosporium fulvum (CfGH17) and studied their role in infection. Heterologous expression of CfGH17-1 to 5 by potato virus X in different tomato cultivars showed that CfGH17-1 and CfGH17-5 enzymes induce cell death in Cf-0, Cf-1 and Cf-5 but not in Cf-Ecp3 tomato cultivars or tobacco. Moreover, CfGH17-1 orthologues from other phytopathogens, including Dothistroma septosporum and Mycosphaerella fijiensis, also trigger cell death in tomato. CfGH17-1 and CfGH17-5 are predicted to be β-1,3-glucanases and their enzymatic activity is required for the induction of cell death. CfGH17-1 hydrolyses laminarin, a linear 1,3-β-glucan with 1,6-β linkages. CfGH17-1 expression is down-regulated during the biotrophic phase of infection and up-regulated during the necrotrophic phase. Deletion of CfGH17-1 in C. fulvum did not reduce virulence on tomato, while constitutive expression of CfGH17-1 decreased virulence, suggesting that abundant presence of CfGH17-1 during biotrophic growth may release a DAMP that activates plant defence responses. Under natural conditions CfGH17-1 is suggested to play a role during saprophytic growth when the fungus thrives on dead host tissue, which is in line with its high levels of expression at late stages of infection when host tissues have become necrotic. We suggest that CfGH17-1 releases a DAMP from the host cell wall that is recognized by a yet unknown host plant receptor.",
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author = "Bilal {\"O}kmen and Daniel Bachmann and {de Wit}, {Pierre J.G.M.}",
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A conserved GH17 glycosyl hydrolase from plant pathogenic Dothideomycetes releases a DAMP causing cell death in tomato. / Ökmen, Bilal; Bachmann, Daniel; de Wit, Pierre J.G.M.

In: Molecular Plant Pathology, Vol. 20, No. 12, 12.2019, p. 1710-1721.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - A conserved GH17 glycosyl hydrolase from plant pathogenic Dothideomycetes releases a DAMP causing cell death in tomato

AU - Ökmen, Bilal

AU - Bachmann, Daniel

AU - de Wit, Pierre J.G.M.

PY - 2019/12

Y1 - 2019/12

N2 - To facilitate infection, pathogens deploy a plethora of effectors to suppress basal host immunity induced by exogenous microbe-associated or endogenous damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). In this study, we have characterized family 17 glycosyl hydrolases of the tomato pathogen Cladosporium fulvum (CfGH17) and studied their role in infection. Heterologous expression of CfGH17-1 to 5 by potato virus X in different tomato cultivars showed that CfGH17-1 and CfGH17-5 enzymes induce cell death in Cf-0, Cf-1 and Cf-5 but not in Cf-Ecp3 tomato cultivars or tobacco. Moreover, CfGH17-1 orthologues from other phytopathogens, including Dothistroma septosporum and Mycosphaerella fijiensis, also trigger cell death in tomato. CfGH17-1 and CfGH17-5 are predicted to be β-1,3-glucanases and their enzymatic activity is required for the induction of cell death. CfGH17-1 hydrolyses laminarin, a linear 1,3-β-glucan with 1,6-β linkages. CfGH17-1 expression is down-regulated during the biotrophic phase of infection and up-regulated during the necrotrophic phase. Deletion of CfGH17-1 in C. fulvum did not reduce virulence on tomato, while constitutive expression of CfGH17-1 decreased virulence, suggesting that abundant presence of CfGH17-1 during biotrophic growth may release a DAMP that activates plant defence responses. Under natural conditions CfGH17-1 is suggested to play a role during saprophytic growth when the fungus thrives on dead host tissue, which is in line with its high levels of expression at late stages of infection when host tissues have become necrotic. We suggest that CfGH17-1 releases a DAMP from the host cell wall that is recognized by a yet unknown host plant receptor.

AB - To facilitate infection, pathogens deploy a plethora of effectors to suppress basal host immunity induced by exogenous microbe-associated or endogenous damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). In this study, we have characterized family 17 glycosyl hydrolases of the tomato pathogen Cladosporium fulvum (CfGH17) and studied their role in infection. Heterologous expression of CfGH17-1 to 5 by potato virus X in different tomato cultivars showed that CfGH17-1 and CfGH17-5 enzymes induce cell death in Cf-0, Cf-1 and Cf-5 but not in Cf-Ecp3 tomato cultivars or tobacco. Moreover, CfGH17-1 orthologues from other phytopathogens, including Dothistroma septosporum and Mycosphaerella fijiensis, also trigger cell death in tomato. CfGH17-1 and CfGH17-5 are predicted to be β-1,3-glucanases and their enzymatic activity is required for the induction of cell death. CfGH17-1 hydrolyses laminarin, a linear 1,3-β-glucan with 1,6-β linkages. CfGH17-1 expression is down-regulated during the biotrophic phase of infection and up-regulated during the necrotrophic phase. Deletion of CfGH17-1 in C. fulvum did not reduce virulence on tomato, while constitutive expression of CfGH17-1 decreased virulence, suggesting that abundant presence of CfGH17-1 during biotrophic growth may release a DAMP that activates plant defence responses. Under natural conditions CfGH17-1 is suggested to play a role during saprophytic growth when the fungus thrives on dead host tissue, which is in line with its high levels of expression at late stages of infection when host tissues have become necrotic. We suggest that CfGH17-1 releases a DAMP from the host cell wall that is recognized by a yet unknown host plant receptor.

KW - cell death-inducing

KW - Cladosporium fulvum

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KW - effectors

KW - GH17

U2 - 10.1111/mpp.12872

DO - 10.1111/mpp.12872

M3 - Article

VL - 20

SP - 1710

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JO - Molecular Plant Pathology

JF - Molecular Plant Pathology

SN - 1464-6722

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ER -