A comparison of the phenolic composition of old and young tea leaves reveals a decrease in flavanols and phenolic acids and an increase in flavonols upon tea leaf maturation

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Abstract

Old tea leaves (OTL), which are normally discarded as agricultural waste, are potential sources of tea phenolic compounds. However, little details are known about their phenolic composition. In this study, the phenolic profiles of OTL and young tea leaves (YTL) were compared by using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to hybrid quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-MS) analyses, with an untargeted approach. A total of 60 phenolic compounds were tentatively identified. Principal component analysis illustrated distinct differences in overall phenolic profiles between OTL and YTL. In particular, after maturation, flavanols and phenolic acids decreased 1.7- and 3.0-fold, respectively, whereas flavonols increased 1.5-fold. In addition, degalloylation commonly occurred with leaf maturation, as evidenced by a decrease in galloylated catechins and flavanol dimers upon aging. Furthermore, by applying linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) algorithm, 14 representative phenolic compounds were identified which underwent extensive quantitative changes upon leaf aging, including: rutin, epigallocatechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin gallate, epicatechin gallate, and epiafzelechin gallate. In conclusion, this study provides detailed insights in the phenolic composition of old and young tea leaves, facilitating the future utilisation of OTL as a new and cost-effective source of tea phenolics.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103385
JournalJournal of Food Composition and Analysis
Volume86
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2020

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Flavonols
Tea
flavanols
flavonols
phenolic acids
tea
leaves
phenolic compounds
epigallocatechin
epicatechin
phenolic acid
ultra-performance liquid chromatography
agricultural wastes
Rutin
Catechin
Discriminant Analysis
rutin
Principal Component Analysis
discriminant analysis
Mass Spectrometry

Keywords

  • Agricultural waste utilisation
  • Degalloylation
  • Linear discriminant analysis effect size
  • Old tea leaves
  • Principal component analysis
  • Tea phenolic compounds
  • UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-MS
  • Young tea leaves

Cite this

@article{e1750e43c3054315a9d59ee07007e295,
title = "A comparison of the phenolic composition of old and young tea leaves reveals a decrease in flavanols and phenolic acids and an increase in flavonols upon tea leaf maturation",
abstract = "Old tea leaves (OTL), which are normally discarded as agricultural waste, are potential sources of tea phenolic compounds. However, little details are known about their phenolic composition. In this study, the phenolic profiles of OTL and young tea leaves (YTL) were compared by using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to hybrid quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-MS) analyses, with an untargeted approach. A total of 60 phenolic compounds were tentatively identified. Principal component analysis illustrated distinct differences in overall phenolic profiles between OTL and YTL. In particular, after maturation, flavanols and phenolic acids decreased 1.7- and 3.0-fold, respectively, whereas flavonols increased 1.5-fold. In addition, degalloylation commonly occurred with leaf maturation, as evidenced by a decrease in galloylated catechins and flavanol dimers upon aging. Furthermore, by applying linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) algorithm, 14 representative phenolic compounds were identified which underwent extensive quantitative changes upon leaf aging, including: rutin, epigallocatechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin gallate, epicatechin gallate, and epiafzelechin gallate. In conclusion, this study provides detailed insights in the phenolic composition of old and young tea leaves, facilitating the future utilisation of OTL as a new and cost-effective source of tea phenolics.",
keywords = "Agricultural waste utilisation, Degalloylation, Linear discriminant analysis effect size, Old tea leaves, Principal component analysis, Tea phenolic compounds, UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-MS, Young tea leaves",
author = "Zhibin Liu and Bruins, {Marieke E.} and {de Bruijn}, {Wouter J.C.} and Vincken, {Jean Paul}",
year = "2020",
month = "3",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.jfca.2019.103385",
language = "English",
volume = "86",
journal = "Journal of Food Composition and Analysis",
issn = "0889-1575",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - A comparison of the phenolic composition of old and young tea leaves reveals a decrease in flavanols and phenolic acids and an increase in flavonols upon tea leaf maturation

AU - Liu, Zhibin

AU - Bruins, Marieke E.

AU - de Bruijn, Wouter J.C.

AU - Vincken, Jean Paul

PY - 2020/3/1

Y1 - 2020/3/1

N2 - Old tea leaves (OTL), which are normally discarded as agricultural waste, are potential sources of tea phenolic compounds. However, little details are known about their phenolic composition. In this study, the phenolic profiles of OTL and young tea leaves (YTL) were compared by using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to hybrid quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-MS) analyses, with an untargeted approach. A total of 60 phenolic compounds were tentatively identified. Principal component analysis illustrated distinct differences in overall phenolic profiles between OTL and YTL. In particular, after maturation, flavanols and phenolic acids decreased 1.7- and 3.0-fold, respectively, whereas flavonols increased 1.5-fold. In addition, degalloylation commonly occurred with leaf maturation, as evidenced by a decrease in galloylated catechins and flavanol dimers upon aging. Furthermore, by applying linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) algorithm, 14 representative phenolic compounds were identified which underwent extensive quantitative changes upon leaf aging, including: rutin, epigallocatechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin gallate, epicatechin gallate, and epiafzelechin gallate. In conclusion, this study provides detailed insights in the phenolic composition of old and young tea leaves, facilitating the future utilisation of OTL as a new and cost-effective source of tea phenolics.

AB - Old tea leaves (OTL), which are normally discarded as agricultural waste, are potential sources of tea phenolic compounds. However, little details are known about their phenolic composition. In this study, the phenolic profiles of OTL and young tea leaves (YTL) were compared by using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to hybrid quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-MS) analyses, with an untargeted approach. A total of 60 phenolic compounds were tentatively identified. Principal component analysis illustrated distinct differences in overall phenolic profiles between OTL and YTL. In particular, after maturation, flavanols and phenolic acids decreased 1.7- and 3.0-fold, respectively, whereas flavonols increased 1.5-fold. In addition, degalloylation commonly occurred with leaf maturation, as evidenced by a decrease in galloylated catechins and flavanol dimers upon aging. Furthermore, by applying linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) algorithm, 14 representative phenolic compounds were identified which underwent extensive quantitative changes upon leaf aging, including: rutin, epigallocatechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin gallate, epicatechin gallate, and epiafzelechin gallate. In conclusion, this study provides detailed insights in the phenolic composition of old and young tea leaves, facilitating the future utilisation of OTL as a new and cost-effective source of tea phenolics.

KW - Agricultural waste utilisation

KW - Degalloylation

KW - Linear discriminant analysis effect size

KW - Old tea leaves

KW - Principal component analysis

KW - Tea phenolic compounds

KW - UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-MS

KW - Young tea leaves

U2 - 10.1016/j.jfca.2019.103385

DO - 10.1016/j.jfca.2019.103385

M3 - Article

VL - 86

JO - Journal of Food Composition and Analysis

JF - Journal of Food Composition and Analysis

SN - 0889-1575

M1 - 103385

ER -