A Circularity Evaluation of New Feed Categories in The Netherlands—Squaring the Circle: A Review

Daniel Puente-Rodríguez*, Harmen van Laar, Maayke Veraart

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


The concept of circularity is currently proposed to address key sustainability issues affecting and affected by livestock production. Through a desk study, this paper evaluates some feed sources that are being developed in The Netherlands as an alternative to current feeds, namely food waste; seaweed; and localized production and alternative plant-based feed sources. These feed categories are evaluated according to four circularity criteria. The first two criteria concern standard circularity principles aimed at both stopping and preventing environmental damage as well as a focus on natural resources use efficiency: (1) Safeguard the health of ecosystems and (2) avoid the production of unnecessary products and use/recycle biomass effectively, as well as evaluating possible food– feed competition. In addition, two ‘people’ and ‘animal’ centred principles have been integrated: (3) fairness and accessibility and (4) animal health and wellbeing. The article concludes that people and animal centred principles are key to thinking of, developing, implementing, and evaluating circularity initiatives. Moreover, the article suggests that categories such as the local production of soya (approx. 132 ha) or seaweed (approx. 10–15 ha) are as yet irrelevant regarding production volumes within the Dutch context. However, some feed sources such as seaweed, insects, livestock leftovers produced at farms and abattoirs, and food waste might strengthen the transition towards more circular and sustainable practices.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2352
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 18 Feb 2022


  • Circularity
  • Evaluation framework
  • Feed
  • Food waste
  • Livestock
  • Localized production
  • Seaweed
  • The Netherlands


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