A significant proportion of terrestrial biomass is constituted of xylem cells that make up woody plant tissue. Xylem is required for water transport, and is present in the vascular tissue with a second conductive tissue, phloem, required primarily for nutrient transport. Both xylem and phloem are derived from cell divisions in vascular meristems known as the cambium and procambium. One major component that influences several aspects of plant vascular development, including cell division in the vascular meristem, vascular organization and differentiation of vascular cell types, is a signalling module characterized by a peptide ligand called TRACHEARY ELEMENT DIFFERENTIATION INHIBITORY FACTOR (TDIF) and its cognate receptor, PHLOEM INTERCALATED WITH XYLEM (PXY). In this review, we explore the literature that describes signalling components, phytohormones and transcription factors that interact with these two central factors, to control the varying outputs required in vascular tissues for normal organization and elaboration of plant vascular tissue.
- Vascular development