A bead-based suspension array for the detection of Salmonella antibodies in pig sera

Fimme J. van der Wal*, René P. Achterberg, Catharina B.M. Maassen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Background: Slaughter pigs are monitored for the presence of the zoonotic pathogen Salmonella, using both serology and bacteriology. ELISAs used to investigate pig herds are based on the detection of antibodies against components of the Salmonella cell envelope. Nearly all Salmonella isolates in food-producing animals are serovars of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica, distributed over various serogroups as determined by the composition of their lipopolysaccharide (LPS). ELISAs for Salmonella serology are usually based on serogroup B and C1 LPS, often combined with serogroup D or E LPS. Although C2 LPS may improve serology, use of C2 LPS in a broad ELISA was never achieved. Results: To enable detection of serum antibodies against Salmonella in pigs, a bead-based suspension array was developed with five LPS variants (B, 2× C1, C2, D1), each conjugated to a different bead set using triazine chemistry. Reactivity of the beads was confirmed with rabbit agglutination sera and with experimental pig sera. With a mixture of bead sets, 175 sera from slaughter pigs were investigated for the presence of antibodies against Salmonella. With a combination of ROC analysis (B and D LPS) and a prevalence estimation based on historic data (C LPS), individual cut-offs were defined for each LPS-conjugated bead set, and assay performance was evaluated. Results of the suspension array (BC1C1C2D) suggest that more pigs are seroconverted than indicated by a commercial BC1D1-ELISA, and that most of these extra seropositive samples give a signal on one of the beads with C LPS. These results show that expansion of a standard panel with more C LPS variants improves antibody detection. Conclusions: A suspension array for Salmonella serology in pigs was developed, that detects more seropositive sera than ELISA, which is achieved by expanding the panel of Salmonella LPS variants, including C2 LPS. The results demonstrate that bead-based suspension arrays allow for testing of pig sera, with the advantage of being able to set cut-offs per antigen. Ultimately, this type of assay can be applied in routine veterinary serology to test for antibodies against multiple Salmonella serovars (or other pathogens) in one single serum sample, using up-to-date antigen panels.

Original languageEnglish
Article number226
JournalBMC Veterinary Research
Volume14
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 27 Jul 2018

Fingerprint

blood serum
Salmonella
lipopolysaccharides
Lipopolysaccharides
Suspensions
Swine
swine
antibodies
Antibodies
Serology
Serum
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
serotypes
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
antibody detection
Antigens
slaughter
Triazines
Bacteriology
Salmonella enterica

Keywords

  • Bead-based suspension array
  • LPS
  • Pig
  • Salmonella
  • Serology
  • Swine
  • Triazine chemistry

Cite this

@article{133837231f2c4e6fb8519bf8733eefef,
title = "A bead-based suspension array for the detection of Salmonella antibodies in pig sera",
abstract = "Background: Slaughter pigs are monitored for the presence of the zoonotic pathogen Salmonella, using both serology and bacteriology. ELISAs used to investigate pig herds are based on the detection of antibodies against components of the Salmonella cell envelope. Nearly all Salmonella isolates in food-producing animals are serovars of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica, distributed over various serogroups as determined by the composition of their lipopolysaccharide (LPS). ELISAs for Salmonella serology are usually based on serogroup B and C1 LPS, often combined with serogroup D or E LPS. Although C2 LPS may improve serology, use of C2 LPS in a broad ELISA was never achieved. Results: To enable detection of serum antibodies against Salmonella in pigs, a bead-based suspension array was developed with five LPS variants (B, 2× C1, C2, D1), each conjugated to a different bead set using triazine chemistry. Reactivity of the beads was confirmed with rabbit agglutination sera and with experimental pig sera. With a mixture of bead sets, 175 sera from slaughter pigs were investigated for the presence of antibodies against Salmonella. With a combination of ROC analysis (B and D LPS) and a prevalence estimation based on historic data (C LPS), individual cut-offs were defined for each LPS-conjugated bead set, and assay performance was evaluated. Results of the suspension array (BC1C1C2D) suggest that more pigs are seroconverted than indicated by a commercial BC1D1-ELISA, and that most of these extra seropositive samples give a signal on one of the beads with C LPS. These results show that expansion of a standard panel with more C LPS variants improves antibody detection. Conclusions: A suspension array for Salmonella serology in pigs was developed, that detects more seropositive sera than ELISA, which is achieved by expanding the panel of Salmonella LPS variants, including C2 LPS. The results demonstrate that bead-based suspension arrays allow for testing of pig sera, with the advantage of being able to set cut-offs per antigen. Ultimately, this type of assay can be applied in routine veterinary serology to test for antibodies against multiple Salmonella serovars (or other pathogens) in one single serum sample, using up-to-date antigen panels.",
keywords = "Bead-based suspension array, LPS, Pig, Salmonella, Serology, Swine, Triazine chemistry",
author = "{van der Wal}, {Fimme J.} and Achterberg, {Ren{\'e} P.} and Maassen, {Catharina B.M.}",
year = "2018",
month = "7",
day = "27",
doi = "10.1186/s12917-018-1541-x",
language = "English",
volume = "14",
journal = "BMC Veterinary Research",
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}

A bead-based suspension array for the detection of Salmonella antibodies in pig sera. / van der Wal, Fimme J.; Achterberg, René P.; Maassen, Catharina B.M.

In: BMC Veterinary Research, Vol. 14, No. 1, 226, 27.07.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - A bead-based suspension array for the detection of Salmonella antibodies in pig sera

AU - van der Wal, Fimme J.

AU - Achterberg, René P.

AU - Maassen, Catharina B.M.

PY - 2018/7/27

Y1 - 2018/7/27

N2 - Background: Slaughter pigs are monitored for the presence of the zoonotic pathogen Salmonella, using both serology and bacteriology. ELISAs used to investigate pig herds are based on the detection of antibodies against components of the Salmonella cell envelope. Nearly all Salmonella isolates in food-producing animals are serovars of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica, distributed over various serogroups as determined by the composition of their lipopolysaccharide (LPS). ELISAs for Salmonella serology are usually based on serogroup B and C1 LPS, often combined with serogroup D or E LPS. Although C2 LPS may improve serology, use of C2 LPS in a broad ELISA was never achieved. Results: To enable detection of serum antibodies against Salmonella in pigs, a bead-based suspension array was developed with five LPS variants (B, 2× C1, C2, D1), each conjugated to a different bead set using triazine chemistry. Reactivity of the beads was confirmed with rabbit agglutination sera and with experimental pig sera. With a mixture of bead sets, 175 sera from slaughter pigs were investigated for the presence of antibodies against Salmonella. With a combination of ROC analysis (B and D LPS) and a prevalence estimation based on historic data (C LPS), individual cut-offs were defined for each LPS-conjugated bead set, and assay performance was evaluated. Results of the suspension array (BC1C1C2D) suggest that more pigs are seroconverted than indicated by a commercial BC1D1-ELISA, and that most of these extra seropositive samples give a signal on one of the beads with C LPS. These results show that expansion of a standard panel with more C LPS variants improves antibody detection. Conclusions: A suspension array for Salmonella serology in pigs was developed, that detects more seropositive sera than ELISA, which is achieved by expanding the panel of Salmonella LPS variants, including C2 LPS. The results demonstrate that bead-based suspension arrays allow for testing of pig sera, with the advantage of being able to set cut-offs per antigen. Ultimately, this type of assay can be applied in routine veterinary serology to test for antibodies against multiple Salmonella serovars (or other pathogens) in one single serum sample, using up-to-date antigen panels.

AB - Background: Slaughter pigs are monitored for the presence of the zoonotic pathogen Salmonella, using both serology and bacteriology. ELISAs used to investigate pig herds are based on the detection of antibodies against components of the Salmonella cell envelope. Nearly all Salmonella isolates in food-producing animals are serovars of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica, distributed over various serogroups as determined by the composition of their lipopolysaccharide (LPS). ELISAs for Salmonella serology are usually based on serogroup B and C1 LPS, often combined with serogroup D or E LPS. Although C2 LPS may improve serology, use of C2 LPS in a broad ELISA was never achieved. Results: To enable detection of serum antibodies against Salmonella in pigs, a bead-based suspension array was developed with five LPS variants (B, 2× C1, C2, D1), each conjugated to a different bead set using triazine chemistry. Reactivity of the beads was confirmed with rabbit agglutination sera and with experimental pig sera. With a mixture of bead sets, 175 sera from slaughter pigs were investigated for the presence of antibodies against Salmonella. With a combination of ROC analysis (B and D LPS) and a prevalence estimation based on historic data (C LPS), individual cut-offs were defined for each LPS-conjugated bead set, and assay performance was evaluated. Results of the suspension array (BC1C1C2D) suggest that more pigs are seroconverted than indicated by a commercial BC1D1-ELISA, and that most of these extra seropositive samples give a signal on one of the beads with C LPS. These results show that expansion of a standard panel with more C LPS variants improves antibody detection. Conclusions: A suspension array for Salmonella serology in pigs was developed, that detects more seropositive sera than ELISA, which is achieved by expanding the panel of Salmonella LPS variants, including C2 LPS. The results demonstrate that bead-based suspension arrays allow for testing of pig sera, with the advantage of being able to set cut-offs per antigen. Ultimately, this type of assay can be applied in routine veterinary serology to test for antibodies against multiple Salmonella serovars (or other pathogens) in one single serum sample, using up-to-date antigen panels.

KW - Bead-based suspension array

KW - LPS

KW - Pig

KW - Salmonella

KW - Serology

KW - Swine

KW - Triazine chemistry

U2 - 10.1186/s12917-018-1541-x

DO - 10.1186/s12917-018-1541-x

M3 - Article

VL - 14

JO - BMC Veterinary Research

JF - BMC Veterinary Research

SN - 1746-6148

IS - 1

M1 - 226

ER -