3D biofilm visualization and quantification on granular bioanodes with magnetic resonance imaging

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

The use of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for wastewater treatment fits in a circular economy context, as they can produce electricity by the removal of organic matter in the wastewater. Activated carbon (AC) granules are an attractive electrode material for bioanodes in MFCs, as they are cheap and provide electroactive bacteria with a large surface area for attachment. The characterization of biofilm growth on AC granules, however, is challenging due to their high roughness and three-dimensional structure. In this research, we show that 3D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to visualize biofilm distribution and determine its volume on irregular-shaped single AC granules in a non-destructive way, while being combined with electrochemical and biomass analyses. Ten AC granules with electroactive biofilm (i.e. granular bioanodes) were collected at different growth stages (3 to 21 days after microbial inoculation) from a multi-anode MFC and T1-weighted 3D-MRI experiments were performed for three-dimensional biofilm visualization. With time, a more homogeneous biofilm distribution and an increased biofilm thickness could be observed in the 3D-MRI images. Biofilm volumes varied from 0.4 μL (day 4) to 2 μL (day 21) and were linearly correlated (R2 = 0.9) to the total produced electric charge and total nitrogen content of the granular bioanodes, with values of 66.4 C μL−1 and 17 μg N μL−1, respectively. In future, in situ MRI measurements could be used to monitor biofilm growth and distribution on AC granules.

LanguageEnglish
Article number115059
JournalWater Research
Volume167
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Dec 2019

Fingerprint

Biofilms
Magnetic resonance
biofilm
visualization
Visualization
Imaging techniques
Activated carbon
activated carbon
Microbial fuel cells
fuel cell
Electric charge
Wastewater treatment
Biological materials
inoculation
roughness
Bacteria
electricity
Anodes
electrode
Biomass

Keywords

  • Activated carbon granules
  • Biofilm distribution
  • Biofilm volume
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Microbial fuel cells
  • Porous electrodes

Cite this

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title = "3D biofilm visualization and quantification on granular bioanodes with magnetic resonance imaging",
abstract = "The use of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for wastewater treatment fits in a circular economy context, as they can produce electricity by the removal of organic matter in the wastewater. Activated carbon (AC) granules are an attractive electrode material for bioanodes in MFCs, as they are cheap and provide electroactive bacteria with a large surface area for attachment. The characterization of biofilm growth on AC granules, however, is challenging due to their high roughness and three-dimensional structure. In this research, we show that 3D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to visualize biofilm distribution and determine its volume on irregular-shaped single AC granules in a non-destructive way, while being combined with electrochemical and biomass analyses. Ten AC granules with electroactive biofilm (i.e. granular bioanodes) were collected at different growth stages (3 to 21 days after microbial inoculation) from a multi-anode MFC and T1-weighted 3D-MRI experiments were performed for three-dimensional biofilm visualization. With time, a more homogeneous biofilm distribution and an increased biofilm thickness could be observed in the 3D-MRI images. Biofilm volumes varied from 0.4 μL (day 4) to 2 μL (day 21) and were linearly correlated (R2 = 0.9) to the total produced electric charge and total nitrogen content of the granular bioanodes, with values of 66.4 C μL−1 and 17 μg N μL−1, respectively. In future, in situ MRI measurements could be used to monitor biofilm growth and distribution on AC granules.",
keywords = "Activated carbon granules, Biofilm distribution, Biofilm volume, Magnetic resonance imaging, Microbial fuel cells, Porous electrodes",
author = "Leire Caiz{\'a}n-Juanarena and Krug, {Julia R.} and Vergeldt, {Frank J.} and J.M. Kleijn and Velders, {Aldrik H.} and {van As}, Henk and {ter Heijne}, Annemiek",
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T1 - 3D biofilm visualization and quantification on granular bioanodes with magnetic resonance imaging

AU - Caizán-Juanarena, Leire

AU - Krug, Julia R.

AU - Vergeldt, Frank J.

AU - Kleijn, J.M.

AU - Velders, Aldrik H.

AU - van As, Henk

AU - ter Heijne, Annemiek

PY - 2019/12/15

Y1 - 2019/12/15

N2 - The use of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for wastewater treatment fits in a circular economy context, as they can produce electricity by the removal of organic matter in the wastewater. Activated carbon (AC) granules are an attractive electrode material for bioanodes in MFCs, as they are cheap and provide electroactive bacteria with a large surface area for attachment. The characterization of biofilm growth on AC granules, however, is challenging due to their high roughness and three-dimensional structure. In this research, we show that 3D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to visualize biofilm distribution and determine its volume on irregular-shaped single AC granules in a non-destructive way, while being combined with electrochemical and biomass analyses. Ten AC granules with electroactive biofilm (i.e. granular bioanodes) were collected at different growth stages (3 to 21 days after microbial inoculation) from a multi-anode MFC and T1-weighted 3D-MRI experiments were performed for three-dimensional biofilm visualization. With time, a more homogeneous biofilm distribution and an increased biofilm thickness could be observed in the 3D-MRI images. Biofilm volumes varied from 0.4 μL (day 4) to 2 μL (day 21) and were linearly correlated (R2 = 0.9) to the total produced electric charge and total nitrogen content of the granular bioanodes, with values of 66.4 C μL−1 and 17 μg N μL−1, respectively. In future, in situ MRI measurements could be used to monitor biofilm growth and distribution on AC granules.

AB - The use of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for wastewater treatment fits in a circular economy context, as they can produce electricity by the removal of organic matter in the wastewater. Activated carbon (AC) granules are an attractive electrode material for bioanodes in MFCs, as they are cheap and provide electroactive bacteria with a large surface area for attachment. The characterization of biofilm growth on AC granules, however, is challenging due to their high roughness and three-dimensional structure. In this research, we show that 3D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to visualize biofilm distribution and determine its volume on irregular-shaped single AC granules in a non-destructive way, while being combined with electrochemical and biomass analyses. Ten AC granules with electroactive biofilm (i.e. granular bioanodes) were collected at different growth stages (3 to 21 days after microbial inoculation) from a multi-anode MFC and T1-weighted 3D-MRI experiments were performed for three-dimensional biofilm visualization. With time, a more homogeneous biofilm distribution and an increased biofilm thickness could be observed in the 3D-MRI images. Biofilm volumes varied from 0.4 μL (day 4) to 2 μL (day 21) and were linearly correlated (R2 = 0.9) to the total produced electric charge and total nitrogen content of the granular bioanodes, with values of 66.4 C μL−1 and 17 μg N μL−1, respectively. In future, in situ MRI measurements could be used to monitor biofilm growth and distribution on AC granules.

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KW - Biofilm distribution

KW - Biofilm volume

KW - Magnetic resonance imaging

KW - Microbial fuel cells

KW - Porous electrodes

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