β(2→6)-Type fructans attenuate proinflammatory responses in a structure dependent fashion via Toll-like receptors

C. Fernández-Lainez*, R. Akkerman, M.M.P. Oerlemans, M.J. Logtenberg, H.A. Schols, L.A. Silva-Lagos, G. López-Velázquez, P. de Vos

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Graminan-type fructans (GTFs) have demonstrated immune benefits. However, mechanisms underlying these benefits are unknown. We studied GTFs interaction with Toll-like receptors (TLRs), performed molecular docking and determined their impact on dendritic cells (DCs). Effects of GTFs were compared with those of inulin-type fructans (ITFs). Whereas ITFs only contained β(2→1)-linked fructans, GTFs showed higher complexity as it contains additional β(2→6)-linkages. GTFs activated NF-κB/AP-1 through MyD88 and TRIF pathways. GTFs stimulated TLR3, 7 and 9 while ITFs activated TLR2 and TLR4. GTFs strongly inhibited TLR2 and TLR4, while ITFs did not inhibit any TLR. Molecular docking demonstrated interactions of fructans with TLR2, 3, and 4 in a structure dependent fashion. Moreover, ITFs and GTFs attenuated pro-inflammatory cytokine production of stimulated DCs. These findings demonstrate immunomodulatory effects of GTFs via TLRs and attenuation of cytokine production in dendritic cells by GTFs and long-chain ITF.

Original languageEnglish
Article number118893
JournalCarbohydrate Polymers
Volume277
Early online date15 Nov 2021
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2022

Keywords

  • Branched-chain fructans
  • Functional food
  • Immunomodulation
  • Non-digestible carbohydrates
  • Toll-like receptors

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