The proposal suggest to undertake conceptual and empirical research about learning-based approaches to natural resource management and more precisely aims to use the construct of social learning, defined as a framework used to study collective decision making processes and the resulting change processes, in an empirical investigation of two cases of natural resource management. This proposal has five research objectives: investigate learning process with relation to different levels of aggregation; investigate the relationship between learning processes and social capital; develop a suitable research methodology; undertake an empirical study in a natural setting; and bring conceptual and empirical insights into a theory-building exercise. The reasons for carrying out further research on learning-based approaches relate to the need for resource management approaches that are adaptive and able to cope with uncertainty and complexity, and can accommodate different user groups. In addressing the above mentioned research objectives this project can contribute to refine the understanding of learning-based approaches and can produce knowledge, which can support practitioners and decision-makers in the development of methods/tools/processes best able to engage actors at various levels for collective decision-making, and sustainable change process. This knowledge and tools can benefit other domains as well, where human action is central, for instance sustainable consumption or climate change. .