The research described in this thesis aims at using membrane filtration technology for dairy concentration and fractionation purposes. The performance of these processes, either as single effect or cascaded systems, is evaluated through flux measurements and energy consumption, and compared to thermal processes. When considering milk production in a broader sense, this thesis also puts forward other options than membrane filtration processes to enhance dairy component fractionation. This can be done, for instance, via the selection of the dairy animal as well as through fermentation of dairy-like proteins. Finally, applications of the proposed filtration set-ups, resulting in a more efficient concentration and/or fractionation, are discussed relative to non-dairy applications.