Anthocyanins are health promoting dietary polyphenols that protect against cardiovascular disease, caner and obesity in preclinical studies with animals. The ATHENA project will address how good dietary anthocyanins are in protecting against chronic disease, by addressing the following questions: • Benefits and risks: What is the dose response to anthocyanin phytonutrients? Are anthocyanins from different food sources equivalent? How well do anthocyanins perform in promoting health compared to other polyphenol phytonutrients such as stilbenes, isoflavones and epicatechins? • Mechanisms of action: What are the mechanisms of action of polyphenol phytonutrients in combating chronic diseases? How do anthocyanins limit weight gain/fat development? How do dietary anthocyanins offer cardioprotection? How do dietary anthocyanins slow the progression of cancers? • Food or Pharma: Supplements or extracts of polyphenols do not appear to promote health as well as when they are consumed in whole foods. What is the influence of nutritional context on the efficacy of polyphenol phytonutrients? Does nutritional context influence the bioavailability of polyphenol phytonutrients? • Roles in human: Do dietary anthocyanins afford protection against cardiovascular disease, cancer and other chronic diseases in human? It is the uniqueness of the interactions that ATHENA will promote, that will innovate and give the most significant added-value to Europe. ATHENA will bring together groups with widely different expertise from across Europe, so that the consortium will be able to achieve significant progress towards addressing the Grand Challenge of Chronic Disease. It will impact the health, well being and quality of life across Europe.