Sel1L is an adaptor protein for the E3 ligase Hrd1 in the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD), but its physiological role in a cell-type-specific manner remains unclear. Here we show that mice with adipocyte-specific Sel1L deficiency are resistant to diet-induced obesity and exhibit postprandial hypertriglyceridemia. Mechanistically, our data demonstrate a critical requirement of Sel1L for the secretion of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), independently of its role in Hrd1-mediated ERAD and ER homeostasis. Further biochemical analyses revealed that Sel1L physically interacts and stabilizes the LPL maturation complex consisted of LPL and lipase-maturation factor 1 (LMF1). In the absence of Sel1L, LPL is retained in the ER and prone to the formation of protein aggregates, which are degraded by autophagy-mediated degradation. The Sel1L-mediated control of LPL secretion is seen in other LPL-expressing cell types as well such as cardiac muscle and macrophages. Thus, our study reports a novel role of Sel1L in LPL secretion and systemic lipid metabolism.