The transcription factor Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α (PPARα) is an important regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism. While PPARα is known to activate transcription of numerous genes, no comprehensive picture of PPARα binding to endogenous genes has yet been reported. To fill this gap, we performed ChIP-chip in combination with transcriptional profiling on HepG2 human hepatoma cells treated with the PPARα agonist GW7647. We found that GW7647 increased PPARα binding to 4220 binding regions. GW7647-induced binding regions showed a bias around the transcription start site and most contained a predicted PPAR binding motif. Several genes known to be regulated by PPARα, such as ACOX1, SULT2A1, ACADL, CD36, IGFBP1 and G0S2, showed GW7647-induced PPARα binding to their promoter. A GW7647-induced PPARα-binding region was also assigned to SREBP-targets HMGCS1, HMGCR, FDFT1, SC4MOL, and LPIN1, expression of which was induced by GW7647, suggesting cross-talk between PPARα and SREBP signaling. Our data furthermore demonstrate interaction between PPARα and STAT transcription factors in PPARα-mediated transcriptional repression, and suggest interaction between PPARα and TBP and C/EBPα in PPARα-mediated transcriptional activation. Overall, our analysis leads to important new insights into the mechanisms and impact of transcriptional regulation by PPARα in human liver and highlight the importance of cross-talk with other transcription factors.