Previously, we showed that dietary heme injured the colonic surface epithelium and induced hyperproliferation by changing the surface to crypt signaling. In this study we investigated whether bacteria play a role in this changed signaling. Dietary heme increased the Bacteroidetes and decreased the Firmicutes in colonic content. This shift was caused by a selective susceptibility of Gram-positive bacteria to the heme cytotoxic fecal waters, which is not observed for Gram-negative bacteria allowing expansion of the Gram-negative community. The increased amount of Gram-negative bacteria increased LPS exposure to colonocytes, however, there is no appreciable immune response detected in the heme-fed mice. There were no signs of sensing of the bacteria by the mucosa, as changes in TLR signaling were not present. This lack of microbe-host cross talk indicated that the changes in microbiota do not play a causal role in the heme-induced hyperproliferation.