Peatlands are sensitive ecosystems that store carbon and water and support biodiversity. Currently European peatlands are threatened by climate change and exploitation. With this model, we show that many landscape settings may support both wetland ecosystems on thick peat soils and forest ecosystems on thin organic soils. Both ecosystems have distinctly different water-carbon dynamics that create internal positive feedbacks allowing both ecosystems to co-exist (bistability), but also to shift when critical limits are exceeded.
Model scripts in R and input files to run the model for entire Europe. This requires almost 1,000,000 model runs of 1000Y each(5650 locations, 166 runs per location, estimated 1-5 minutes per model run, total output of around 85 Gig., not presented here)