PPARα is a ligand-activated transcription factor involved in the regulation of nutrient metabolism and inflammation. Although much is already known about the function of PPARα in hepatic lipid metabolism, many PPARα-dependent pathways and genes have yet to be discovered. In order to obtain an overview of PPARα-regulated genes relevant to lipid metabolism, and to probe for novel candidate PPARα target genes, livers from several animal studies in which PPARα was activated and/or disabled were analyzed by Affymetrix GeneChips. Numerous novel PPARα-regulated genes relevant to lipid metabolism were identified. Out of this set of genes, eight genes were singled out for study of PPARα-dependent regulation in mouse liver and in mouse, rat, and human primary hepatocytes, including thioredoxin interacting protein (Txnip), electron-transferring-flavoprotein β polypeptide (Etfb), electron-transferring-flavoprotein dehydrogenase (Etfdh), phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (Pctp), endothelial lipase (EL, Lipg), adipose triglyceride lipase (Pnpla2), hormone-sensitive lipase (Lipe), and monoglyceride lipase (Mgll). Using an in silico screening approach, one or more PPAR response elements (PPREs) were identified in each of these genes. Since Pnpla2, Lipe, and Mgll contribute to hepatic triglyceride hydrolysis, gene regulation was studied under conditions of elevated hepatic lipids. In wild-type mice fed a high fat diet, the decrease in hepatic lipids following treatment with the PPARα agonist Wy14643 was paralleled by significant up-regulation of Pnpla2, Lipe, and Mgll, suggesting that induction of triglyceride hydrolysis may contribute to the anti-steatotic role of PPARα. Our study illustrates the power of transcriptional profiling to uncover novel PPARα-regulated genes and pathways in liver.
|Date made available||24 Jul 2007|
Rakhshandehroo, M. (Creator), Sanderson-Kjellberg, L. M. (Creator), Matilainen, M. (Creator), Stienstra, R. (Creator), Carlberg, C. (Creator), de Groot, P. (Creator), Muller, M. (Creator), Kersten, S. (Creator) (24 Jul 2007). Comprehensive analysis of PPARα-dependent regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism by expression profiling - 4. Wageningen University.