To increase our knowledge of the effects of Fructo oligosaccharides (FOS) on Salmonella infection in fats, a controlle rat infection study was performed. Two groups of 12 rats were adapted for 14 days to a cellulose diet and one group of 12 rats to a FOS diet. One cellulose-fed group and the FOS-fed group were infected with Salmonella. Two days post infection mRNA was collected from the mucosa of the colon and changes in gene expression were assessed using an Agilent rat whole genome microarray (G4131A Agilent Technologies). Results indicate that Salmonella affects colonic mucosal gene expression, which is further enhanded by dietary FOS.